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Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xi

1 Thermal Processing of Herbs and Spices 1
Anjali H. Kurup, Shweta Deotale, Ashish Rawson, and Ankit Patras

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Thermal Processing of Spices 2

1.2.1 Cooking and Roasting of Spices 2

1.2.2 Blanching 9

1.2.3 High-Pressure Steam Treatment 10

1.2.4 Electromagnetic Energy (Microwave) Treatment 12

1.3 Thermal Processing of Herbs 13

1.4 Conclusion 16

References 17

2 Non-Thermal Processing of Herbs and Spices 23
Camila A. Perussello

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Ozone 25

2.3 Irradiation 28

2.4 Pulsed Electric Field 31

2.5 Pulsed Light 33

2.6 Fumigation with Ethylene Dioxide 34

2.7 High Pressure CO2 Coupled with Ultrasound 36

2.8 Cold Plasma 37

2.9 Conclusions 39

References 39

3 Recent Developments in High-Quality Drying of Herbs and Spices 45
Wei Jin, Min Zhang, Weifeng Shi, and Arun S. Mujumdar

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Novel Combined Drying Methods 46

3.2.1 Solar-Related Combined Drying Methods 47

3.2.2 Microwave-Related Combined Drying Methods 53

3.2.3 Other Energy Sources-Related Combined Drying Methods 59

3.3 Other Innovative Drying Methods 61

3.4 Conclusion and Suggestions for Future Research 62

Acknowledgments 63

References 63

4 Conventional Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds from Herbs and Spices 69
Md Abu Bakar Siddique, Katerina Tzima, Dilip K. Rai, and Nigel Brunton

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Principles of Extraction 70

4.2.1 Solid-Liquid Extraction 70

4.2.2 Liquid-Liquid Extraction 74

4.3 Factors Affecting Extraction 76

4.3.1 Solid-Liquid Extraction 76

4.3.2 Liquid-Liquid Extraction 79

4.3.3 Soxhlet Extraction 82

4.4 Optimized Extraction Techniques for Herbs and Spices 85

4.5 Conclusion 85

References 88

5 Novel Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds from Herbs and Spices 95
Andrea P. Sanchez-Camargo, Lidia Montero, Jose A. Mendiola, M. Herrero, and E. Ibanez

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) 96

5.2.1 Description of the Technique 96

5.2.2 Applications of PLE to Herbs and Spices 98

5.3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) 101

5.3.1 Description of the Technique 101

5.3.2 Applications of SFE to Herbs and Spices 103

5.4 Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) 105

5.4.1 Description of the Technique 105

5.4.2 Applications of UAE to Herbs and Spices 106

5.5 Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) 108

5.5.1 Description of the Technique 108

5.5.2 Applications of MAE to Herbs and Spices 109

5.6 Enzyme-Assisted Extraction (EAE) 112

5.6.1 Description of the Technique 112

5.6.2 Applications of EAE to Herbs and Spices 113

5.7 Integration of Different Extraction Techniques 115

5.7.1 Ultrasound-Microwave-Assisted Extraction (UMAE) 115

5.7.2 Enzyme-Based-Ultrasound-Microwave-Assisted Extraction (EUMAE) 116

5.7.3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction-Pressurized Fluid Extraction (SFE-PLE) 116

5.7.4 Supercritical Fluid Extraction Assisted by Ultrasound (SFE-UAE) 118

5.8 Conclusions and Future Outlook 120

Acknowledgments 121

References 121

6 Approaches to Analytical Techniques - Characterizing Phytochemicals in Verbascum spp. 129
Anna-Maria Keaveney, Ambrose Furey, and Brigid Lucey

6.1 Introduction 129

6.2 The Challenge of Complexity 134

6.3 Extraction Processes 137

6.4 Separation and Detection 140

6.4.1 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) 143

6.4.2 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) 146

6.4.3 Gas Chromatography (GC) 147

6.4.4 Ion Exchange Chromatography, Size Exclusion Chromatography, Capillary Electrophoresis 147

6.4.5 Hyphenated Techniques (LC-MS, GC-MS, LC-NMR) 148

6.4.6 TLC Bioautography 149

6.4.7 Spectroscopic Methods 150

6.5 Chemical Characterization 151

6.5.1 Iridoid Glycosides 153

6.5.2 Flavonoids 158

6.5.3 Phenylethanoid/Phenylproponoid Glycosides 159

6.5.4 Saponins 160

6.5.5 Spermine Alkaloids 161

6.5.6 Polysaccharides 161

6.5.7 Other Constituents 162

6.6 Discussion 162

6.7 Conclusion 165

Funding and Acknowledgments 166

References 166

7 Purification and Isolation Techniques for Enrichment of Bioactive Phytochemicals from Herbs and Spices 177
Ramon Aznar and Dilip K. Rai

7.1 Introduction 177

7.2 How to Approach Purification and Isolation 178

7.3 Purification Techniques 180

7.3.1 Liquid-Liquid Fractionation 180

7.3.2 Solid-Phase Extraction 181

7.3.3 Preparative Liquid Chromatography 185

7.3.4 Hydrolysis 194

7.3.5 Membrane Filtration 195

7.3.6 Recrystallization 195

7.3.7 Other Techniques 197

7.4 Example of Purification and Isolation 198

7.5 Challenges and Future Trends 199

References 201

8 Medicinal Properties of Herbs and Spices: Past, Present, and Future 207
Celia Rodriguez-Perez and Ramon Aznar

8.1 Introduction 207

8.2 Historical Uses of Herbs and Spices 208

8.3 Herbs and Spices in the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases 210

8.3.1 Anticancer Properties 210

8.3.2 Anti-inflammatory Properties 230

8.3.3 Antidiabetic Properties 231

8.3.4 Antiobesity Properties 233

8.3.5 Hypolipidemic Properties 233

8.3.6 Influence on Digestive Stimulation 235

8.3.7 Antihypertensive Properties 236

8.3.8 Protection Against Alzheimer's Disease 236

8.3.9 Hepatoprotective Properties 237

8.4 Interaction and Potential Side Effects 238

8.5 Future Trends 239

Abbreviations 239

References 240

9 Synergy in Whole Plant Medicine: Crataegus spp.: An Example 251
Mary C. Tassell, Anne-Maria Keaveney, Rosari Kingston, Deirdre Gilroy, Mary Lehane, Brigid Lucey, and Ambrose Furey

9.1 Introduction 251

9.2 Cardiovascular Diseases 252

9.3 Crataegus spp. 252

9.4 Synergy 254

9.4.1 Dose-Effect Approaches 257

9.4.2 Effect-Based Approaches 260

9.5 Mechanisms of Action 262

9.5.1 Multitarget Effects 264

9.5.2 Pharmacokinetic or Physicochemical Effects (Enhanced Bioavailability, Improved Solubility, or Improved Resorption Rate) 264

9.5.3 Interactions with the Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms of Bacteria 264

9.5.4 Improved Effectiveness by, for Example, Elimination or Neutralization of

Adverse or Toxic Effects 265

9.6 Crataegus spp. - a Review 266

9.6.1 Published Papers 266

9.6.2 Multitarget Effects 270

9.7 General Considerations 272

9.7.1 Lack of a Precise Definition for Combination Effects 272

9.7.2 Heterogeneity of Studies 273

9.7.3 Preparations Used 273

9.7.4 Absorption and Bioavailability 274

9.8 Conclusion 275

Funding and Acknowledgments 276

References 276

10 Potential Applications of Polyphenols from Herbs and Spices in Dairy Products as Natural Antioxidants 283
Katerina Tzima, Nigel P. Brunton, Alka Choudhary, and Dilip K. Rai

10.1 Introduction 283

10.2 Implications in the Use of Herbs and Spices as Natural Antioxidants in Milk and Dairy Products 284

10.2.1 Effect of Phenolic Concentration on Milk and Dairy Products 284

10.2.2 Effect of Phenolics on the Organoleptic Properties of Dairy Products 285

10.2.3 Effect of Phenolics on the Protein Stability of Milk and Dairy Products 287

10.2.4 Effect of Indigenous Antioxidant Compounds (Chlorophyll) on the Color of Milk and Dairy Products 288

10.3 Milk and Dairy Products as Carriers of Natural Antioxidants 288

10.3.1 Butter and Dairy Spreads as Carriers of Natural Antioxidants 289

10.3.2 Cheese as a Carrier of Natural Antioxidants 290

10.3.3 Ghee as a Carrier of Natural Antioxidants 291

10.3.4 Sandesh as a Carrier of Natural Antioxidants 292

10.3.5 Yogurt as a Carrier of Natural Antioxidants 293

10.3.6 Ice Cream as a Carrier of Natural Antioxidants 294

Abbreviations 294

References 294

11 Biotic and Abiotic Safety Concerns for Herbs and Spices 301
Manja Zec and Maria Glibetic

11.1 Natural Products in Science - "Generally Recognized as Safe?" 303

11.2 Herbs and Spices - Reported Adverse Effects and Adverse Drug Reactions 304

11.3 (A)Biotic Factors Incorporated in the Foodchain and Influencing the Safety of Herbal Consumption 306

11.4 Herbal Product Safety Concerns - Advances in Identification and Regulatory Framework 309

References 313

12 Adverse Human Health Effects and Regulation of Metal Contaminants in Terrestrial Plant-Derived Food and Phytopharmaceuticals 321
Ciara-Ruth Kenny, Brigid Lucey, and Ambrose Furey

12.1 Introduction 321

12.2 Sources of Environmental Metal Impurities Contributing to Plant Material Contamination 323

12.2.1 Soil and Surrounding Rhizosphere 324

12.2.2 Air 326

12.2.3 Water (Ground-, Surface- and Waste-water) 327

12.2.4 Processing, Packaging, Storage, and Preparation 327

12.3 Overview of Metal Uptake Systems in Plants 328

12.4 Human Exposure to Metals in Plant-Derived Food and Associated Regulation 328

12.4.1 Aluminum (Al) 335

12.4.2 Arsenic (As) 336

12.4.3 Cadmium 342

12.4.4 Chromium (Cr) 346

12.4.5 Lead (Pb) and Mercury (Hg) 348

12.5 Metals in Phytopharmaceuticals and Associated Regulation 349

12.5.1 Phytopharmaceuticals 349

12.5.2 Current European Regulatory Guidelines: The Herbal Directive Scheme 349

12.5.3 Current Quality Criteria for Metal Impurities 351

12.5.4 Key Issues 354

12.6 Metal Contaminants in Supplements: An Overview 356

12.7 Conclusion 356

Declaration of Interest 357

Funding and Acknowledgments 357

References 357

Index 377

About the Author

About the Editors Mohammad B. Hossain, is a Research Officer in the Department of Food Biosciences at Teagasc Food Research Centre in Ashtown, Ireland, and is a member of the editorial board of 'Antioxidants' and 'Journal of Food Processing and Beverages'. Nigel P. Brunton, is an Associate Professor at the School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Ireland. Dilip K. Rai, is a Senior Research Officer in the Department of Food Biosciences at Teagasc Food Research Centre in Ashtown, Ireland where he focuses on nutraceuticals.

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