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A History of Modern Psychology, Fifth Edition
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Table of Contents

PREFACE ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCING PSYCHOLOGY'S HISTORY 1 Why Take This Course? 2 Why Study History? 2 Why Study Psychology's History? 4 Key Issues in Psychology's History 6 Presentism versus Historicism 7 Internal versus External History 9 Personalistic versus Naturalistic History 10 Close-Up: Edwin G. Boring (1886-1968) 10 This Book's Point of View 13 Historiography: Doing and Writing History 13 Sources of Historical Data 14 From the Miles Papers: Miles Meets His Academic Grandfather 16 Problems with the Writing of History 17 Data Selection Problems 17 Interpretation Problems 19 Approaching Historical Truth 20 Summary 21 Study Questions 22 CHAPTER 2 THE PHILOSOPHICAL CONTEXT 24 A Long Past 25 Rene Descartes (1596-1650): The Beginnings of Modern Philosophy and Science 25 Descartes and the Rationalist Argument 27 The Cartesian System 28 Descartes on the Reflex and Mind-Body Interaction 29 The British Empiricist Argument and the Associationists 32 John Locke (1632-1704): The Origins of British Empiricism 32 Locke on Human Understanding 32 Locke on Education 34 George Berkeley (1685-1753): Empiricism Applied to Vision 35 British Associationism 37 David Hume (1711-1776): The Rules of Association 37 David Hartley (1705-1757): A Physiological Associationism 39 Close-Up: Raising a Philosopher 41 John Stuart Mill (1806-1873): On the Verge of Psychological Science 42 Mill's Psychology 43 Mill's Logic 44 Rationalist Responses to Empiricism 45 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) 45 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) 46 In Perspective: Philosophical Foundations 47 Summary 48 Study Questions 49 CHAPTER 3 THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT 50 Heroic Science in the Age of Enlightenment 51 Functioning of the Nervous System 52 Reflex Action 53 The Bell-Magendie Law 54 The Specific Energies of Nerves 56 Helmholtz: The Physiologist's Physiologist 57 Measuring the Speed of Neural Impulses 58 Helmholtz on Vision and Audition 59 Helmholtz and the Problem of Perception 61 Localization of Brain Function 62 The Phrenology of Gall and Spurzheim 62 Close-Up: The Marketing of Phrenology 65 Flourens and the Method of Ablation 68 The Clinical Method 69 The Remarkable Phineas Gage 70 Broca and the Speech Center 71 Mapping the Brain: Electrical Stimulation 73 Nervous System Structure 74 Neuron Theory 74 Sir Charles Sherrington: The Synapse 76 From the Miles Papers: Miles Visits Sherrington in Oxford 77 In Perspective: The Nervous System and Behavior 78 Summary 78 Study Questions 79 CHAPTER 4 WUNDT AND GERMAN PSYCHOLOGY 81 An Education in Germany 82 On the Threshold of Experimental Psychology: Psychophysics 83 Johann Herbart (1776-1841) 84 Ernst Weber (1795-1878) 85 Two-Point Thresholds 85 Weber's Law 85 Gustav Fechner (1801-1889) 86 Fechner's Elements of Psychophysics 87 Wundt Establishes a New Psychology at Leipzig 88 Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920): Creating a New Science 88 Wundt's Conception of the New Psychology 90 Studying Immediate Conscious Experience 91 Studying Higher Mental Processes 92 Inside Wundt's Laboratory 92 Sensation and Perception 92 Mental Chronometry 93 Close-Up: An American in Leipzig 95 Rewriting History: The New and Improved Wilhelm Wundt 96 The Source of the Problem 96 The Rediscovery of Wundt 97 The Real Wundt 97 The Wundtian Legacy 98 The New Psychology Spreads 99 Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909): The Experimental Study of Memory 99 The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve 102 Other Contributions by Ebbinghaus 103 G. E. Muller (1850-1934): The Experimentalist Prototype 103 Oswald Kulpe (1862-1915): The Wurzburg School 104 Mental Sets and Imageless Thoughts 106 In Perspective: A New Science 107 Summary 107 Study Questions 108 CHAPTER 5 DARWIN'S CENTURY: EVOLUTIONARY THINKING 110 The Species Problem 111 Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the Theory of Evolution 112 The Shaping of a Naturalist 112 The Voyage of the Beagle 114 Darwin the Geologist 115 Darwin the Zoologist 115 The Galapagos Islands 116 The Evolution of Darwin's Theory 116 Darwin's Delay 118 Elements of the Theory of Evolution 120 After the Origin of Species 121 Darwin and Psychology's History 122 The Origins of Comparative Psychology 123 Darwin on the Evolution of Emotional Expressions 123 Close-Up: Douglas Spalding and the Experimental Study of Instinct 125 George Romanes (1848-1894) and the Anecdotal Method 126 Conwy Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936) and his "Canon" 128 Comparative Psychology in America 130 Studying Individual Differences 130 Francis Galton (1822-1911): Jack of All Sciences 130 The Nature of Intelligence 131 The Anthropometric Laboratory 134 Investigating Imagery and Association 134 In Perspective: Darwin's Century 136 Summary 136 Study Questions 137 CHAPTER 6 AMERICAN PIONEERS 139 Psychology in 19th-Century America 140 Faculty Psychology 140 American Psychology's First Textbook 141 The Modern University 141 Education for Women and Minorities 142 William James (1842-1910): The First of the "New" Psychologists in America 146 The Formative Years 147 A Life at Harvard 147 Creating American Psychology's Most Famous Textbook 149 On Methodology 150 Consciousness 150 Habit 151 Emotion 152 James's Later Years 153 Spiritualism 153 Summing Up William James 154 G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924): Professionalizing the New Psychology 154 Hall's Early Life and Education 155 From Johns Hopkins to Clark 156 Psychology at Clark 157 Close-Up: Creating Maze Learning 158 Hall and Developmental Psychology 160 Hall and Psychoanalysis 161 From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Invention of the Stylus Maze 163 Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930): Challenging the Male Monopoly 164 Calkins's Life and Work 164 Graduate Education for Females 165 Calkins's Research on Association 165 From Psychology to Philosophy 166 Other Women Pioneers: Untold Lives 167 Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) 167 Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) 168 Other Pioneers: Ladd and Baldwin 169 George Trumbull Ladd (1842-1921) 169 James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) 170 In Perspective: The New Psychology at the Millennium 171 Summary 172 Study Questions 173 CHAPTER 7 STRUCTURALISM AND FUNCTIONALISM 175 Titchener's Psychology: Structuralism 176 From Oxford to Leipzig to Cornell 176 Promoting Experimental Psychology at Cornell 177 The Manuals 179 The Experimentalists 181 Titchener's Structuralist System 182 Close-Up: The Introspective Habit 183 The Structural Elements of Human Conscious Experience 184 Evaluating Titchener's Contributions to Psychology 185 From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Carlisle Conference 186 America's Psychology: Functionalism 187 The Chicago Functionalists 189 John Dewey (1859-1952): The Reflex Arc 189 James R. Angell (1869-1949): The Province of Functional Psychology 191 Harvey Carr (1873-1954): The Maturing of Functionalism 193 The Columbia Functionalists 194 James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944): An American Galton 194 Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949): Cats in Puzzle Boxes 197 Robert S. Woodworth (1869-1962): A Dynamic Psychology 202 In Perspective: Structuralism and Functionalism 204 Summary 205 Study Questions 206 CHAPTER 8 APPLYING THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY 208 The Desire for Application 209 From the Miles Papers: Miles and Stanford Football 210 The Mental Testing Movement 212 Alfred Binet (1857-1911): The Birth of Modern Intelligence Testing 212 The Binet-Simon Scales 214 Henry H. Goddard (1866-1957): Binet's Test Comes to America 215 The Kallikaks 217 Goddard and the Immigrants 219 Lewis M. Terman (1877-1956): Institutionalizing IQ 221 The Stanford-Binet IQ Test 221 Terman Studies the Gifted 222 Close-Up: Leta Hollingworth: Advocating for Gifted Children and Debunking Myths about Women 224 Robert M. Yerkes (1876-1956): The Army Testing Program 226 Army Alpha and Army Beta 227 The Controversy over Intelligence 230 Applying Psychology to Business 232 Hugo Munsterberg (1863-1916): The Diversity of Applied Psychology 233 Munsterberg and Employee Selection 235 Other Leading Industrial Psychologists in America 237 Walter Van Dyke Bingham (1880-1952) 237 Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972) 238 Harry Hollingworth (1880-1956) 239 Applied Psychology in Europe Psychotechnics 240 In Perspective: Applied Psychology 241 Summary 242 Study Questions 243 CHAPTER 9 GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY 244 The Origins and Early Development of Gestalt Psychology 245 Max Wertheimer (1880-1943): Founding Gestalt Psychology 247 Koffka (1886-1941) and Koehler (1887-1967): Cofounders 249 Close-Up: A Case of Espionage? 251 Gestalt Psychology and Perception 252 Principles of Perceptual Organization 253 Behavioral versus Geographic Environments 255 The Gestalt Approach to Cognition and Learning 255 Koehler on Insight in Apes 256 Wertheimer on Productive Thinking 257 Other Gestalt Research on Cognition 258 Kurt Lewin (1890-1947): Expanding the Gestalt Vision 260 Early Life and Career 260 From the Miles Papers: Miles Learns about the Nazi Version of Academic Freedom 261 Field Theory 262 The Zeigarnik Effect 264 Lewin as Developmental Psychologist 264 Lewin as Social Psychologist 266 Action Research 267 Evaluating Lewin 268 In Perspective: Gestalt Psychology in America 268 Summary 269 Study Questions 271 CHAPTER 10 THE ORIGINS OF BEHAVIORISM 272 Behaviorism's Antecedents 273 Pavlov's Life and Work 274 The Development of a Physiologist 275 Working in Pavlov's Laboratory The Physiology Factory 275 Pavlov's Classical Conditioning Research 277 Conditioning and Extinction 278 Generalization and Differentiation 279 Experimental Neurosis 279 A Program of Research 280 Pavlov and the Soviets 280 Pavlov and the Americans 282 Close-Up: Misportraying Pavlov's Apparatus 283 From the Miles Papers: Miles Meets Pavlov 284 John B. Watson and the Founding of Behaviorism 285 The Young Functionalist at Chicago 285 The Watson-Carr Maze Studies 286 Opportunity Knocks at Johns Hopkins 288 Watson and Animal Behavior 288 Watson's Behaviorist Manifesto 289 Watson's APA Presidential Address 291 Studying Emotional Development 291 The Zenith and the Nadir of a Career: Little Albert 292 A New Life in Advertising 295 Popularizing Behaviorism 296 Evaluating Watsonian Behaviorism 297 In Perspective: Behaviorism's Origins 299 Summary 299 Study Questions 300 CHAPTER 11 THE EVOLUTION OF BEHAVIORISM 302 Post-Watsonian Behaviorism 303 Logical Positivism and Operationism 304 Neobehaviorism 306 Edwin R. Guthrie (1886-1959): Contiguity, Contiguity, Contiguity 307 One-Trial Learning 308 Evaluating Guthrie 309 Edward C. Tolman (1886-1959): A Purposive Behaviorism 310 Tolman's System 311 Molar versus Molecular Behavior 311 Goal-Directedness 312 Intervening Variables 312 From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Old Boys Network 314 Tolman's Research Program 314 Latent Learning 315 Cognitive Maps 316 Evaluating Tolman 317 Clark Hull (1884-1952): A Hypothetico-Deductive System 319 Hull's System 321 Postulate 4: Habit Strength 322 Reaction Potential 323 Evaluating Hull 323 B. F. Skinner (1904-1990): A Radical Behaviorism 325 The Experimental Analysis of Behavior 326 Operant Conditioning: A Primer 328 Skinner and Theory 329 Skinner and the Problem of Explanation 330 A Technology of Behavior 331 Close-Up: The IQ Zoo and the "Misbehavior of Organisms" 332 Evaluating Skinner 334 In Perspective: Neobehaviorism 335 Summary 336 Study Questions 337 CHAPTER 12 MENTAL ILLNESS AND ITS TREATMENT 339 Early Treatment of the Mentally Ill 340 "Enlightened" Reform: Pinel, Tuke, Rush 340 The 19th-Century Asylum Movement 342 Reforming Asylums: Dix and Beers 345 Close-Up: Diagnosing Mental Illness 346 Mesmerism and Hypnosis 347 Mesmerism and Animal Magnetism 348 From Mesmerism to Hypnosis 349 The Hypnotism Controversies 350 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Founding Psychoanalysis 352 Early Life and Education 352 Breuer and the Catharsis Method 354 Creating Psychoanalysis 356 The Importance of Sex 357 Psychoanalysis Enters the 20th Century 358 The Evolution of Psychoanalytic Theory 358 Freud's Followers: Loyalty and Dissent 360 Psychoanalysis in America 361 Evaluating Freud 362 Contributions 363 Criticisms 363 In Perspective: Treating Mental Illness 364 Summary 364 Study Questions 366 CHAPTER 13 PSYCHOLOGY'S PRACTITIONERS 367 The Medical Approach to Mental Illness 368 A Shock to the System: Fever, Insulin, Metrazol, and Electricity 369 Close-Up: Shell Shock 370 No Reversal: Lobotomy, Transorbital and Otherwise 371 Clinical Psychology before World War II 373 Lightner Witmer (1867-1956): Creating Psychology's First Clinic 374 Clinical Psychology Between the World Wars 376 The Emergence of Modern Clinical Psychology 377 The Boulder Model 378 The Eysenck Study: Problems for Psychotherapy 379 Behavior Therapy 380 The Humanistic Approach to Psychotherapy 381 Abraham Maslow and the Goal of Self-Actualization 381 Carl Rogers and Client-Centered Therapy 382 Evaluating Humanistic Psychology 385 The Vail Conference and the PsyD Degree 385 Psychology and the World of Business and Industry 387 The Hawthorne Studies 389 In Perspective: Psychology's Practitioners 391 Summary 392 Study Questions 393 CHAPTER 14 PSYCHOLOGY'S RESEARCHERS 395 Cognitive Psychology Arrives (Again) 396 The Roots of Modern Cognitive Psychology 396 Jean Piaget (1896-1980): A Genetic Epistemology 396 Frederick C. Bartlett (1886-1969): Constructing Memory 398 A Convergence of Influences 400 Influences within Psychology 400 Influences External to Psychology 401 Close-Up: What Revolution? 403 Magical Numbers, Selective Filters, and TOTE Units 404 Neisser and the "Naming" of Cognitive Psychology 407 The Evolution of Cognitive Psychology 408 Evaluating Cognitive Psychology 410 Other Research Areas 410 The Brain and Behavior 411 Karl Lashley (1890-1958) 411 From the Miles Papers: Miles Visits Lashley 413 Donald O. Hebb (1904-1985) 414 The Psychology of Perception 415 James J. Gibson (1904-1979) 415 Eleanor Gibson (1910-2002) 417 Social Psychology 418 Leon Festinger (1919-1989) 419 Stanley Milgram (1933-1984) 421 Personality Psychology 423 Henry Murray (1893-1988) 423 Gordon Allport (1897-1967) 424 In Perspective: Psychology's Researchers 426 Summary 427 Study Questions 428 CHAPTER 15 PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY 429 Researchers and Practitioners 429 The Growth and Diversity of Psychology 430 Women in Psychology's History 431 Minorities in Psychology's History 432 Trends in Modern Psychology 433 The Future: Psychology or Psychologies? 434 Summary 436 Study Questions 437 REFERENCES 439 GLOSSARY 469 INDEX 481 TIMELINES 495

About the Author

C. James Goodwin is an emeritus professor at Wheeling Jesuit University, where he taught for 30 years before taking an early retirement. He is currently residing in the mountains of North Carolina and is Professor of Psychology at Western Carolina University. He earned a Bachelor's degree from the College of the Holy Cross and a Master's and PhD in experimental psychology from Florida State University, specializing in memory and cognition. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association in Divisions 2 (teaching) and 26 (history). His research interests on the empirical side are in the area of cognitive mapping, wayfinding, and spatial cognition, but his prime interest is in the early history of experimental psychology in the United States. He is the author of two undergraduate textbooks, one in research methods (Research in Psychology: Methods and Design) and one in the history of psychology (A History of Modern Psychology)

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