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Horticultural Reviews
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Table of Contents

Contributors ix

Dedication: Chad E. Finn xii
John R. Clark 1. Light-Emitting Diodes in Horticulture 1
Cary A. Mitchell, Michael P. Dzakovich, Celina Gomez, Roberto Lopez, John F. Burr, Richardo Hernandez, Chieri Kubota, Christopher J. Currey, Quingwu Meng, Erik S. Runkle, Christopher M. Bourget, Robert C. Morrow, and Arend J. Both

I. Introduction 5

II. Properties of LEDs 6

III. Design Considerations 11

IV. Historical Overview of LED Use in Horticulture 16

V. Summary of Plant Experiments in Space with LEDs 18

VI. Horticultural Applications of LEDs 19

VII. LED Lighting and Plant Health 60

VIII. LEDs and Light Pollution 62

IX. LED Light Distribution Issues 63

X. LED Environmental and Health Issues 65

XI. Adoption of LED Technology by Horticultural Industries 66

XII. The Future of Plant Applications for LEDs 72

Literature Cited 73

2. Chayote: Pre-Columbian Origins and Dispersal 89
Fernando A. Moreira

I. Introduction 91

II. Botany and Horticulture 91

III. Linguistic History of Chayote 97

IV. Metaphor and Ethnography 120

V. Mesoamerican Distribution of Chayote 124

VI. Archaeology and Iconography 127

VII. Folk Taxonomy 131

VIII. Conclusion 135

Acknowledgments 137

Literature Cited 137

3. Ragwort: Invasive Weed and Potential Pharmaceutical 145
Catherina M. O'Keeffe, Gary W. Stutte, and Michelle McKeon-Bennett

I. Introduction 146

II. Botany 148

III. Chemistry 155

IV. Control Measures 163

V. Commercial Potential 168

VI. Conclusions 172

Literature Cited 174

4. Advances and Trends in Organic Fruit and Vegetable Farming Research 185
Martine Dorais and Beatrix Alsanius

I. Principles, History, and Standards of Organic Horticulture 187

II. Global Expansion of Organic Fruit and Vegetable Production 190

III. Published Research on Organic Fruit and Vegetable Farming 194

IV. Benefits of Organic Horticulture 197

V. Constraint of Organic Horticulture 214

VI. Proposed Research Area for Organic Fruit and Vegetable Production 233

VII. Conclusion 238

Literature Cited 239

5. Western Botanical Gardens: History and Evolution 269
Donald A. Rakow and Sharon A. Lee

I. Introduction 271

II. Ancient Roots 272

III. Hortus Conclusus: Precursor of the Hortus Botanicus 274

IV. The Rise of Botanical Studies 276

V. European Botanical Gardens 277

VI. Botanical Gardens in Great Britain 285

VII. Botanical Gardens in the United States 292

VIII. The Future of the Botanical Garden 306

Literature Cited 308

6. The Future of Global Banana Production 311
Randy C. Ploetz and Edward A. Evans

I. Introduction 312

II. Origins, Taxonomy, and Production 313

III. Production, Trade, and Marketing 315

IV. Past and Current Threats to Production 320

V. Banana Diseases and Pests 321

VI. An Outlook for Future Production 341

Literature Cited 343

Subject Index 353

Cumulative Subject Index 355

Cumulative Contributor Index 389

About the Author

Jules Janick is the James Troop Distinguished Professor of Horticulture at Purdue University in West Lafayette, IN, USA.

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