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Table of Contents Part 1 IntroductionChapter 1An Example of Development Through The LifespanBarack Obama - The Promise of DevelopmentThinking About Lifespan DevelopmentWhy Study The Lifespan?What Is Development?Changing Views of the LifespanChildren Through The YearsAdolescence: A Time of Storm, Stress, or Calm?The Adult YearsThe Importance of Biopsychosocial InteractionsUnderstanding Children's CulturesContributors to Biopsychosocial InteractionsIssues in Lifespan DevelopmentContinuity versus DiscontinuityNature vs. NurtureDevelopmental ResearchData Collection TechniquesTime Variable DesignsConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestChapter 2The Psychoanalytic TraditionStructures of the MindThe Developing PersonalityPsychosocial Crises and DevelopmentErikson's Eight Psychosocial StagesThe Cognitive Developmental ApproachJean Piaget's TheoryThe Cultural Framework ApproachLev Vygotsky's TheoryThe Zone of Proximal DevelopmentThe Behavioral ApproachSkinner and Operant ConditioningBandura and Social Cognitive LearningA Bioecological ModelBronfenbrenner's System AnalysisDevelopmental Theory: Current Status, Future DirectionInteractions Among Levels of DevelopmentDevelopmental Systems TheoryConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestPart 2BeginningsChapter 3The Fertilization ProcessThe BeginningsThe Menstrual CycleInfertilityCauses of InfertilityAssisted Reproduction TechniquesAdoptionHeredity at WorkChromosomes and GenesDNA: Structure and FunctionHow Traits Are TransmittedHereditary DisordersThe Human Genome ProjectHow The Human Genome Project BeganEthical, Legal, and, Social ImplicationsConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestChapter 4The Prenatal World The Germinal PeriodThe Embryonic Period The Fetal PeriodInfluences on Prenatal DevelopmentMaternal InfluencesTeratogensDiagnosing Fetal ProblemsThe Birth ProcessStages in the Birth ProcessBirth ComplicationsThe Special Case of PrematurityConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestPart 3InfancyChapter 5Physical Development In InfancyDevelopment Milestones of InfancyBrain DevelopmentNeonatal ReflexesNewborn AbilitiesNeonatal Assessment TechniquesMotor DevelopmentNeonatal ProblemsPerceptual DevelopmentThe Meaning of PerceptionVisual PerceptionAuditory PerceptionCognitive DevelopmentPiaget's Sensorimotor PeriodCriticisms of PiagetInformation Processing in InfancyLanguage DevelopmentAcquiring Their LanguageKey Signs of Language DevelopmentConclusion & SummaryKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestChapter 6The Meaning of RelationshipsCharacteristics of the Developing RelationshipHow Do Children Develop Relationships?The Role of Reciprocal InteractionsParental Roles: Expectations For a RelationshipAttachmentBowlby's WorkAttachment ResearchNew Directions in Attachment ResearchFathers and AttachmentTemperamentThe Origins of TemperamentGoodness of FitSensitive ResponsivenessEarly Emotional DevelopmentEmotions and Emotional DevelopmentSigns of Emotional DevelopmentAnalyzing Emotional ExpressionConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestPart 4Early ChildhoodChapter 7Physical and Motor DevelopmentFeatures of Physical DevelopmentContinuing Brain DevelopmentBoys' and Girls' BrainsInfluences on Physical Development in Early ChildhoodGrowing Motor SkillsCognitive DevelopmentPiaget's Preoperational PeriodInformation Processing TheoryChildren's Theory of MindEarly Childhood EducationPiaget and MontessoriProject Head StartLanguage DevelopmentLanguage as Rule LearningThe Pattern of Language DevelopmentBilingualismConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestChapter 8The Family in DevelopmentA Changing View of the FamilyParents and Their ChildrenSiblings and DevelopmentChildren of DivorceDay CareThe Self EmergesThe Development of SelfChanges in the Developing SelfThe Role of Gender in DevelopmentDefinition of TermsTheories of Gender Developmentcquiring Gender IdentityGender StereotypingThe Importance of PlayThe Meaning of PlayDevelopmental Aspects of PlayConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestPart 5 Middle ChildhoodChapter 9Physical DevelopmentBrain Development During the Middle Childhood YearsNutritionChildren Who Are ExceptionalCognitive DevelopmentPiaget and Concrete OperationsNew Ways of Looking at IntelligenceThinking and Problem SolvingChildren and Thinking SkillsProblem-Solving StrategiesThe DUPE ModelMoral DevelopmentThe Path of Moral DevelopmentPiaget's ExplanationKohlberg's TheoryGilligan's In a Different VoiceLanguage DevelopmentChanges in UsageChildren and Their BooksThe Issue of LiteracyConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestChapter 10The Changing Sense of SelfThe Developing Self-ConceptSelf-Esteem and CompetenceChildren and Self-RegulationThe Influence of PeersChildren's FriendshipsPeers in Middle ChildhoodSchools and Middle ChildhoodAre Schools Really That Important?Do Teachers Make a Difference?Schools and DevelopmentTelevision and DevelopmentTelevision and Cognitive DevelopmentTelevision and ViolenceStress in ChildhoodTypes of StressWhy Children React Differently to StressAbused ChildrenThe Special Case of Sexual AbuseResilient ChildrenConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestPart 6 AdolescenceChapter 11Physical and Cognitive Development in AdolescenceHow Should We Define Adolescence?Theories of AdolescenceAnna Freud's Psychological TheoryErik Erikson's Psychosocial TheoryJohn Hill's Biopsychosocial TheoryPhysical DevelopmentYour Reproductive SystemWhen Does Puberty Start?The Secular TrendBody Image and Eating Disorders The Role of Stress Cognitive DevelopmentVariables in Cognitive Development: PiagetEmotions and Brain Development Adolescent EgocentrismCritical ThinkingCreative ThinkingMental Health IssuesConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestChapter 12Psychosocial Development in AdolescenceChanging American Families and Their Roles in Adolescent LifeThe Loss of Functions The Effects of Divorce The Nurturing Parent Peer RelationsDevelopmental Patterns of Peer GroupsFunctions of Peer GroupsSexual BehaviorStages of SexualityAutosexual BehaviorHomosexual BehaviorHeterosexual BehaviorSexually Transmitted InfectionsAIDSOther Sexually Transmitted InfectionsThe Teenage ParentIllegal Behavior Substance Abuse Criminal BehaviorConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestPart 7Early AdulthoodChapter 13Physical and Cognitive Development in Early AdulthoodInitiation into AdulthoodThe Transition to Adulthood in the United StatesImplications of the Lack of an Initiation CeremonyPhysical DevelopmentThe Peak Is ReachedOrgan ReserveThe Effect of Lifestyle on HealthCognitive DevelopmentIntellectual/Ethical Development"Women's Ways of Knowing" Patterns of Work The Phenomenon of the Dual-Career FamilyHome-Based WorkConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestChapter 14Psychosocial Development in Early AdulthoodMarriage and the FamilyChanging American Marriages and FamiliesTypes of MarriagePersonal DevelopmentThe Adult Life Cycle: LevinsonSeasons of a Man's Life: LevinsonIntimacy versus Isolation: EriksonSexual Identity and Gender RolesAspects of Gender RoleThe Traditio nalist ViewEvolutionary PsychologyAndrogynyMale versus Female IdentityInterpersonal RelationsSexualityMarital PracticesForms and Factors of Love: SternbergValidation: FrommConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestPart 8Middle AdulthoodChapter 15Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle AdulthoodPhysical Development HealthMuscular Ability Sensory AbilitiesThe ClimactericCognitive DevelopmentIntelligenceNew Views of IntelligenceThe Development of CreativityLearning AbilityPatterns of WorkSpecial Challenges for the Working WomanThe Midcareer CrisisSome Suggestions for Dealing with the Midcareer CrisisConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestChapter 16Psychosocial Development in Middle AdulthoodDealing with the Stresses of AdulthoodThe General Adaptation SyndromeRisk and ResilienceMarriage and Family RelationsMarriage at Middle AgeRelationships with Aging ParentsRelationships with SiblingsFriendshipsThe Middle-Aged Divorced PersonSex and Love in Middle AdulthoodPersonality Development: Continuous or Changing?Continuity versus ChangeSeasons of a Man's Life: LevinsonSeasons of a Woman's Life: LevinsonGender SplittingGenerativity versus Stagnation: EriksonContinuous Traits TheoryConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestPart 9Late AdulthoodChapter 17Physical and Cognitive Development in Late AdulthoodMust We Age and Die?Physiological Theories of AgingGenetic Theories of AgingEffects of the Natural Environment on AgingOther Modifiers of AgingPhysical DevelopmentReaction TimeSensory AbilitiesOther Body SystemsHealthAppearanceCognitive DevelopmentCognitive Ability in the Elderly: Tests versus ObservationsCreativityWisdomConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestChapter 18Psychosocial Development in Late AdulthoodSocial DevelopmentGender RolesSexualityThe Elderly and Their FamiliesThe Older WorkerPerformanceRetirementPersonal DevelopmentThe Committee on Human DevelopmentErikson ConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review TestChapter 19Dying and SpiritualityThe Role of Death in LifeWhat Is Death? The Leading Causes of Death in the United StatesFour Types of DeathThe Legal Definition of DeathDealing Successfully with the Death of OthersGrief WorkPathological GrievingThe Role of Grief The Role of the FuneralDealing Successfully with One's Own DeathSuicide: The Rejection of LifeThe Overall PictureThe Influence of Gender on Suicide"Successful" DyingDeath with DignityThe Hospice: "A Better Way of Dying" SpiritualityReligious ParticipationFrankl's Theory of SpiritualityJung's Theory of SpiritualityWilson's Theory of SpiritualityFowler's Theory of SpiritualityConclusionKey TermsWhat Do You Think?Chapter Review Test
Dr. John Dacey teaches courses in adolescent and adult development at Boston College and has a small practice as a psychotherapist. He is the author of 13 books on the subjects of anxiety, creativity and human development, including Your Anxious Child and The Safe Child Handbook. He has received public service awards from Newton, Peabody and Roxbury, MA. John F. Travers is a Professor of Child Psychology at Boston College. He is the author of about 30 articles and the following books: The Growing Child, 2/e, Learning, 2/e, Human Development Across the Lifespan, 7/e, The First Six Years, Educational Psychology, 3/e, Growth and Development Through the Lifespan, 2/e, Children's Literature: A Developmental Perspective Lisa B. Fiore, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor and Director of Early Childhood Education at Lesley University. She primarily teaches graduate students preparing to be early childhood and elementary educators, but also enjoys working with in-service teachers around professional development. Recent interests include the use of documentation to extend and enhance learning environments, and the use of rich media in classroom teaching. The mother of two young children, she is reminded daily of the competence and curiosity of young people, and how much grown-ups have to learn about the way things work. She has written several books, the most recent The Safe Child Handbook with co-author John Dacey.