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The Human Strategy


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List of Tables: Preface: PART I. INTRODUCTION 1. EVOLUTION AND ADAPTATION What Is Evolution? The Theory of Evolution The Evidence for Evolution Darwinism: Evolution by Natural Selection Natural Selection Evidence for Natural Selection The Origin of Heritable Variation How Variation Takes Form Differences in Degree of Development: Differences in Direction of Development: The Limits of Natural Selection Sexual Selection Adaptationism: An Evolutionary Perspective Other Paths to Adaptation Important Evolutionary Concepts 2. A PLACE IN NATURE: HUMANS IN AN EVOLVING WORLD A Place in Time A Place in Life: Biological Classification Comparative Background of the Human Species Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Tetrapods Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae The Emergence of Humans PART II. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM 3. BONES, JOINTS, AND MUSCLES Stresses and Strains Cartilage Bone Development and Growth of Bone Remodeling of Bone Adaptations of Mammalian Bone Ligament and Tendon Joints Accessory and Conjunct Motions Muscle Concepts of Functional Design Reduction of Mass Energetic Efficiency 4. THE SKULL The Human Skull Evolution of the Mammalian Skull Origins of the Vertebrate Cranium Mammalian Modifications of the Tetrapod Skull Changes in the Primate Skull The Primate Face Orbital Convergence: Shortening the Face: The Cranial Vault Browridges: Basicranial Flexion: Mechanics of Head Balance Jaws The Mandibular Symphysis and the Chin The Australopithecine Chewing Complex The Problem of Skeletal and Dental Reduction 5. TEETH Tooth Development Evolution of Vertebrate Teeth Origins of Teeth Mammalian Dental Adaptations The Tribosphenic Molar Hominin Teeth Dental Formulae Anterior Dentition Posterior Dentition The Dental Arcade and the Chewing Cycle Hominin Enamel Adaptations Dental Adaptations of the Neanderthals Modern Trends and Variations in Human Dentition 6. THE SPINE Stages in the Evolution of Vertebrate Body Design Fish Early Tetrapods Mammals Structure of the Human Vertebral Column Intervertebral Joints Regions of the Human Spine Curvatures of the Spine Fossil Evidence Musculature of the Trunk 7. THE UPPER LIMB Evolution of the Forelimb The Origin of Tetrapod Limbs The Mammalian Forelimb Hominoid Adaptations The Pectoral Girdle The Elbow Hands Knuckle-Walking Human Hands Adaptations for Manipulation Evolution of the Thumb Fossil Tool-Makers? 8. THE LOWER LIMB The Pelvis Adaptations of the Hip Joint for Bipedalism The Thigh The Knee Adaptations of the Knee for Bipedalism The Leg The Ankle and Foot The Bones of the Foot The Toes Evolutionary Trends in Ankle and Foot Musculature The Longitudinal Arch of the Foot Conversion Mechanism of the Foot Support for the Arch Function of the Longitudinal Arch Functional Variation in the Design of the Arch 9. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: BIPEDALISM The Transition to Bipedalism The Pelvis and Hip The Knee The Foot The Australopithecine Body After the Australopithecines The Adaptive Significance of Bipedalism Historical Speculations Concerning the Origin of Bipedalism The Problem with Cultural Models Reconstructing the Transition PART III. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 10. ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN Initial Development of Nervous System General Anatomy of the Brain The Brainstem The Forebrain Diencephalon: Cerebrum: Functional Organization of the Brain Specific and Nonspecific Projections Consciousness Functional Localization Somatotopic Organization Phylogenetic Layering The Motor System Decussation Functional Lateralization Language and Lateralization The Evolution of Language and Lateralization Lateralization in Primates: Evidence of Language in Nonhuman Primates: Fossil Evidence for Language: Integration with Other Systems The Neuroendocrine System The Autonomic Nerves: The Neuroendocrine Axis: Neuroendocrine Integration: The Stress Response: Integration with the Immune System Integration with Consciousness: The Limbic System Emotions: The Reward System: Memory: 11. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: BRAIN SIZE Comparing Brains The Relation of Brain and Body Size Brain Size and Function The Rate of Hominin Brain Evolution Selecting for Brain Size The Social Model Dietary Models Metabolic Needs: Environmental Models Overcoming Constraints Selecting for Reorganization and New Abilities Developmental Possibilities Qualitative Differences in Function 12. THE SPECIAL SENSES Olfaction Central Pathways The Evolution of Smell The Vomeronasal Organ Taste Vision Frontally Directed Vision Photoreceptors and Color Vision Evolution of Vision in the Brain Equilibrium Hearing The Outer and Middle Ears The Evolution of the Ear PART IV. SYSTEMS OF HOMEOSTASIS 13. SKIN The Anatomy of Skin The Epidermis The Dermis The Hypodermis Differences among Vertebrates Getting a Grip: Fingerprints and Nails Friction Pads and Fingerprints Nails Hair Hair Reduction Glands of the Skin Apocrine Glands Eccrine Glands Sweat and Hair Reduction as a Human Strategy for Thermoregulation A Problem of Fat Fat as Insulation Fat Is an Adaptation for the Brain Explaining Human Skin Pigmentation Melanin and Photoprotection The Vitamin D Hypothesis Other Hypotheses of Human Pigmentation More Pigments Hair and Eye Color: Melanin in Other Tissues: Genetics of Skin Pigmentation 14. DIGESTION AND DIET A Natural Diet The Digestive System The Coelom and the Peritoneum Tissue Structure of the Alimentary Canal Organs of the Digestive Tract The Start of the Canal: Esophagus: Stomach: Small Intestine: Accessory Glands: Colon: Reconstructing the Diet of Early Hominins The Evidence of Dental Anatomy The Evidence of Dental Microwear Bone Composition and Diet Archaeological Evidence of Meat Consumption And Other Evidence. . . Later Hominins A Backward Look from the Present Modern Hunter-Gatherer Diet Feeding the Brain Anatomical Adaptations Frugivory, Carnivory, Omnivory Recent Changes in Diet and Health 15. RESPIRATION Evolution of Vertebrate Breathing The Problem of Gas Exchange and Transport Gills Lungs and Swim Bladders Breathing in Simple Tetrapods Breathing in Mammals Mechanics of Human Respiration Functional Specializations of the Human Respiratory Tract The Nasal Passages The Pharynx The Larynx The Evolution of Speech Climatic Adaptations 16. CIRCULATION The Heart The Chambered Heart Structure and Function of the Human Heart Evolution of Vertebrate Circulation Circulation through Gills Circulation through Lungs Human Ontogeny Recapitulating Phylogeny The Fetal Circulation Pattern: Changes at Birth: Circulation and Thermoregulation Countercurrent Exchanges: Maintaining a Temperature Differential Cooling the Body: Regulating Cutaneous Blood Flow Cooling the Brain 17. EXCRETION Evolution of the Vertebrate Kidney The Vertebrate Nephron Vertebrate Strategies Kidneys of Simple Vertebrates The Mammalian Kidney The Concentration of Urine Human Water Balance 18. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: ENERGY FLOW, HOMEOSTASIS, AND ENDURANCE Limitations on Energy Processing Endurance Requires Energy Energy and Oxygen Consumption Managing Heat The Significance of Body Size and Form Body Form and Climate Adaptation The Human Strategy PART V. REPRODUCTION 19. REPRODUCTION The Origin of Sexual Reproduction Gametes and the Basis of Sexual Selection Dimorphism and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Vertebrate Reproductive Strategies Mammalian Strategies Menstruation: The Placenta: Labor and Delivery Labor: A Positive Feedback Mechanism: The Anatomy of Delivery: The Evolution of Birth Lactation and the Breast The Composition of Milk Breasts and the Female Figure Breasts as Erotic Attractors Breasts as Advertisements Breasts as Deceitful Advertisements The Problem of Gender Recognition 20. SEX AND HUMAN EVOLUTION Sexuality and Mating among the Apes Two Adaptationist Models The Pair-Bond Model: The Promiscuity Model: Contrasting the Models: Sexual Selection in the Human Species Sexual Dimorphism in Body Size Evidence for Sexual Selection of Men Sexual Selection and Genital Size: Sperm Competition: Evidence for Sexual Selection among Women Sexual Selection and Contemporary Mate Selection Women: Choosing Status: Men: Choosing Reproductive Potential: Support for the Pair-Bond Model Human Sexual Behavior The Problem of Estrus Is Ovulation Concealed?: The Pleasure of Sex The Obscuring of Estrus: Support for the Promiscuity Model? Human Mating Systems Are Flexible Conclusions 21. THE HUMAN STRATEGY: LIFE HISTORY The r and K Strategies Trends Human Life History Stages of Life History Fetal Life: Infancy and Nursing: Juvenile Life and Childhood: Subadults and Maturity: Postreproductive Life: Longevity and Evolution of the Modern Life Span Dental Maturation in Early Hominins: Foraging, Energy, and Society Glossary: Bibliography: Index:

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