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Hydraulic Fracturing Operations
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgements xix

Author and Editor Biographies xxi

1 Hydraulic Fracturing Overview 1

1.1 Technology Overview 1

1.2 Benefits, Environmental Deterents, Hurdles and Public Safety 6

1.3 U.S. Resources and Standing 27

1.4 Worldwide Levels of Activity 36

1.5 The Role of Water 50

2 Oil and Gas Regulations 53

2.1 U.S. Environmental Regulations 53

2.2 Historical Evolution of Regulations Affecting Oil and Gas 59

2.3 RCRA Exemptions 66

2.4 Permitting Rules 73

3 Management of Chemicals 85

3.1 Memorandum of Agreement Between the U.S. EPA and Industry 85

3.2 Chemicals Used 86

3.3 Safe Handling and Emergency Response to Spills and Fires 92

3.4 Storage Tanks 127

3.5 Risk Management 133

3.6 Establishing a Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan 141

4 Water Quality Standards and Wastewater 153

4.1 Overview 153

4.2 Water Quality Criteria, Standards, Parameters, and Limits 155

4.3 Wastewater Characterization 156

4.4 Wastewater Management Alternatives 187

4.5 Water Treatment Technologies 193

4.6 Deep Well Injection of Wastes 387

4.7 Overall Assessment of Wastewater Management Alternatives 393

5 Water Utilization, Management, and Treatment 401

5.1 Introduction 401

5.2 Water Use by the Oil and Gas Energy Sector 402

5.3 Overview of Water Management Practices 403

5.4 Wastewater Treatment Technologies 411

5.5 Alternatives to Conventional Wastewater Treatment 416

5.6 Project Management 419

5.7 Economics of Wastewater Treatment 426

5.8 State-of-the-Art Water Management Project 430

5.9 Special Challenges in the Oil and Gas Energy Sector 433

References 435

6 Well Construction and Integrity 437

6.1 Overview 437

6.2 API Good Practices for Well Design and Construction 440

6.3 Integrity Failure 446

6.4 Abandonment and Closure 465

6.5 Best Practices for Site Operations 469

References 474

7 Managing Air Pollution Discharges 477

7.1 The Problem 477

7.2 Methodology of Air Pollution Control 483

7.3 Remote Sensing and Monitoring 486

7.4 Leak Detection and Repair 493

7.5 Use of Flares 509

7.6 Fugitive Dust Discharges 596

7.7 Compressor Stations 640

7.8 Dehydrators 679

8 Macro Considerations of Environmental and Public Health Risks 705

8.1 Overview 705

8.2 The Challenges of Managing Water Resources 707

8.3 The Challenges of Managing Air Quality 716

8.4 The Challenges of Managing Greenhouse Gas Emissions 729

8.5 The Challenges of Managing Man-Made Seismicity 737

Index 743

About the Author

Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff is a chemical engineer with more than 40 years of industry, R&D and international business experiences. He is the co-founder of No Pollution Enterprises. He has led and implemented various technical many areas of the world for such organizations as the U.S. Agency for International Development, the U.S. Trade & Development Agency, the World Bank Organization, and the private sector. Over his career he has served as a standard of care industry expert on a number of litigation matters, and he has authored or edited over 160 technical reference on sound environmental management, safe work practices and public protection from harmful chemicals. He is cited in U.S. Congressional records concerning emerging environmental legislations, and is a graduate of Clarkson University. Anton R. Davletshin is Program Manager at No Pollution Enterprises, a firm specializing in standard of care assessments. He oversees sampling and research programs, and conducts historical environmental impact assessments that aid in forensic reconstruction of legacy pollution problems. His expertise also extends to application of air dispersion simulations using the EPA-approved AERMOD program used in the evaluation of community impacts from point and area sources of emissions from within industrial complexes. He is a FLIR certified infrared thermography scientist, and oversees teams performing inspection of industrial sites. A graduate of Virginia Polytechnic Institute, he holds a degree in construction management.

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