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Infants, Toddlers, and Caregivers


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Table of Contents

PrefaceResources for CaregiversPart 1 Focus on the CaregiverChapter 1Principles, Practice, and Curriculum What Do You See?Relationships, Interactions, and the Three RsCaregiving Routines as Opportunities for Three-R InteractionsTen Principles Based on a Philosophy of RespectPrinciple 1: Involve Infants and Toddlers in Things That Concern ThemPrinciple 2: Invest in Quality TimePrinciple 3: Learn Each Child's Unique Ways of Communicating and Teach YoursVIDEO OBSERVATION 1: Baby Crying Principle 4: Invest Time and Energy to Build a Total PersonPrinciple 5: Respect Infants and Toddlers as Worthy PeoplePrinciple 6: Be Honest about Your FeelingsPrinciple 7: Model the Behavior You Want to TeachPrinciple 8: Recognize Problems as Learning Opportunities, and Let Infants and Toddlers Try to Solve Their OwnPrinciple 9: Build Security by Teaching TrustPrinciple 10: Be Concerned about the Quality of Development in Each StageCurriculum and Developmentally Appropriate PracticeThe Principles in Action: Principle 5Appropriate PracticeSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingChapter 2Infant-Toddler EducationWhat Do you see?What Infant-Toddler Education Is NotInfant StimulationBabysittingPreschoolWhat Infant-Toddler Education Is: The ComponentsCurriculum as the Foundation of Infant-Toddler EducationVIDEO OBSERVATION 2: Toddler Playing with a Tube and a BallImplementing the CurriculumAssessing the Effectiveness of the Curriculum: Observing and RecordingEducation as Facilitating Problem SolvingThe Principles in Action: Principle 8The Adult Role in Facilitating Problem SolvingAppropriate PracticeInfant-Toddler Education and School ReadinessSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingChapter 3 Caregiving as CurriculumWhat Do You See?Thinking Again About Infant-Toddler CurriculumPlanning for AttachmentPolicies That Support Curriculum as CaregivingAssessmentCaregiving RoutinesFeedingVIDEO OBSERVATION 3: Children Feeding ThemselvesDiaperingToilet Training and Toilet LearningWashing, Bathing, and Grooming Differing Needs and PerspectivesDressingNappingThe Principles in Action: Principle 1Appropriate PracticeSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingChapter 4Play and Exploration as CurriculumWhat Do You See?Adult Roles in Play Setting Up Environments for PlayEncouraging Interactions and Then Stepping BackVIDEO OBSERVATION 4: Toddlers Playing OutsideSupporting Problem SolvingObservingEnvironmental Factors That Influence PlayThe Principles in Action: Principle 2Group Size and Age SpanSetting Up the Environment to Support PlayHappeningsFree ChoiceThe Problem of the MatchAppropriate PracticeSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingPart 2Focus on the ChildChapter 5AttachmentWhat Do You See?Brain ResearchBrain Building Blocks and Brain CircuitryQuality Experiences and Stable Neural PathwaysMirror Neurons: Actions and ObservationsThe Principles in Action: Principle Milestones of AttachmentAttachment Behaviors: Birth to Six MonthsAttachment Behavior: Seven to Eighteen MonthsSupporting Attachment in Quality ProgramsVIDEO OBSERVATION 5: Toddler "Checking in" While Playing with ChairsDEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: AttachmentMeasuring AttachmentEarly Research and Contemporary IssuesAttachment IssuesInfants with Few Attachment BehaviorsInfants Who Experience Neglect or IndifferenceBrain Growth and Attachment-based Programs Children with Special Needs: The Importance of Early InterventionWhat Is Early Intervention?DEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Attachment BehaviorsSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingChapter 6PerceptionWhat Do You See?Sensory IntegrationHearingVIDEO OBSERVATION 6: Boy Exploring Toy Car Using Touch and SoundSmell and TasteTouchThe Principles in Action: Principle 7SightMultisensory Experiences and the Outdoor EnvironmentChildren with Special Needs: Educating Families about the Individualized Family Service PlanDEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Behaviors Showing Development of PerceptionSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingChapter 7Motor SkillsWhat Do You See?Physical Growth and Motor SkillsBrain Growth and Motor DevelopmentImportance of Free Movement, Observation, and ImitationReflexesThe Principles in Action: Principle 10Large Motor Skills and LocomotionResearch from the Pikler InstituteVIDEO OBSERVATION 7: Children Climbing StairsSmall Motor Skills and ManipulationEncouraging Self-Help SkillsFostering Motor Development Children with Special Needs: Finding ResourcesDEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Behaviors Showing Development of Motor SkillsSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingChapter 8CognitionWhat Do You See?The Cognitive ExperienceSensorimotor Experience: PiagetSociocultural Influences: Vygotsky and PiagetSelf-Regulating LearnersSocial Interaction and CognitionLanguage and CognitionPlay and CognitionThe Principles in Action: Principle 8Supporting Cognitive DevelopmentThe Importance of Real-Life ExperiencesBrain-based LearningVIDEO OBSERVATION 8: Father Diapering Toddler Children with Special Needs: Early Childhood InclusionDEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Behaviors Showing Development of CognitionSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingChapter 9LanguageWhat Do You See?The Progression of Language DevelopmentReceptive LanguageExpressive LanguageWhat Language Allows a Child to Do: The Cognitive LinkThe Brain and Early Language DevelopmentVIDEO OBSERVATION 9: Children Eating at Table with CaregiverBrain Activity and Language CompetencyFostering Language DevelopmentEarly LiteracyThe Principles in Action: Principle 3Early Literacy and School Readiness Cultural Differences, Bilingualism and Dual Language Learners Goals of the "Language Relationship" Children with Special Needs: Supporting Parents and FamiliesDEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Behaviors Showing Development of LanguageSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingChapter 10EmotionsWhat Do You See?The Development of Emotions and FeelingsTemperament and ResiliencyResiliency and Healthy Emotional DevelopmentHelping Infants and Toddlers Cope with FearsHelping Infants and Toddlers Cope with AngerVIDEO OBSERVATION 10: Child Trying to Get Her Turn in a SwingThe Principles in Action: Principle 6Self-Calming TechniquesDeveloping Self-Direction and Self-RegulationThe Emotional BrainStress and Early Brain DevelopmentThe Impact of Neglect Children with Special Needs: Challenges and TrendsDEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS:Behavior Showing Development of EmotionsSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingChapter 11Social SkillsWhat Do You See?The Principles in Action: Principle 4Early Social BehaviorsStages of Psychosocial DevelopmentTrustAutonomyInitiativeGuidance and Discipline: Teaching Social SkillsSecurity and Control for InfantsLimits for ToddlersTeaching Prosocial SkillsPromoting Healthy Brain GrowthVIDEO OBSERVATION 11: Girls Playing Together The Special Need of All Children: Self-EsteemExperiences That Foster Self-EsteemDEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS:Behaviors Showing Development of Social SkillsSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingPart 3Focus on the ProgramChapter 12The Physical EnvironmentWhat Do You See?A Safe EnvironmentCreating a Safe Physical Environment: A ChecklistA Healthful EnvironmentCreating a Healthful and Sanitary Environment: A ChecklistNutritionFeeding InfantsFeeding ToddlersVIDEO OBSERVATION 12: Feeding RoutineThe Learning EnvironmentLayoutEatingSleepingDiaperingToiletingDevelopmental AppropriatenessAppropriate Environments for InfantsAppropriate Environments for ToddlersFamily Child Care and Mixed-Age GroupsThe Principles in Action: Principle 8 What Should Be in the Play EnvironmentToys and Materials for InsideToys and Materials for OutsideAssessing the Quality of an Infant-Toddler EnvironmentBalancing Soft and HardProviding for Intrusion and SeclusionEncouraging MobilityThe Open-Closed DimensionThe Simple-Complex DimensionScaleAestheticsAcousticsOrderAppropriate PracticeSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingChapter 13The Social EnvironmentWhat Do You See?Focus QuestionsIdentity FormationThe Principles in Action: Principle 1AttachmentSelf-Image Cultural IdentityGender IdentitySelf-Concept and DisciplineVIDEO OBSERVATION 13: Child in Sandbox (Redirection)Modeling Self-Esteem by Taking Care of YourselfAppropriate PracticeSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further ReadingChapter 14Adult Relations in Infant-Toddler Care and Education ProgramsWhat Do You See?Parent-Caregiver RelationsCaregiver Stages of Relating to ParentsThe Principles in Action: Principle 3Communication with Parents and/or Family MembersService Plan: Focus on the ChildService Plan: Focus on the FamilyCommunication BlocksOpening Up Communication Issues of Parents of Children with Special NeedsParent Education Parents of Children with Special NeedsVIDEO OBSERVATION 14: Girl Crawling Through Low Window (Parent Ed Program)Early Care and Education ProfessionalsRelating to the Parents of a Child Who Isn't Doing WellCaregiver RelationsThe Family Child Care ProviderCenter StaffRespect as the Key to Adult RelationshipsAppropriate PracticeSummaryOnline ResourcesKey TermsThought/Activity QuestionsFor Further Reading
Appendix AQuality in Infant-Toddler Programs: A ChecklistAppendix BEnvironmental ChartNotesGlossaryCreditsIndex

About the Author

Tenured Professor of Early Childhood Education / Child Development at Canada College since 1970, Department Coordinator since 1978 (and author of 30 courses within the ECE/CD Department). Dianne has served on various college committees during the last few years including the Articulation Self Study Committee and the Chairperson for the College Council from 2002 to 2004. She received specialized diversity training under Title V in 2002. In the late 1990s she was a presenter at the Annual Conference of the National Association for the Education of Young Children in Atlanta, GA and Washington D.C. respectively. She is the co-author of Infants, Toddlers and Caregivers, sixth edition, McGraw-Hill, released in 2004. Her community experiences include: Task Force member for the Advancing Careers in Child Development Project (Pacific Oaks College, Pasadena CA); San Mateo County Consortium for Quality Programs; SMC Partnership Council; and membership in SMAEYC. She has been responsible for several grants within the ECE/CD Department including: Foster Care Education, SAFE START/Violence Intervention in ECE (Centers for Disease Control); and the Family Support Program (a PSP and The Council collaboration). She is currently coordinating a grant with First 5 San Mateo County to recruit and retain quality ECE/CD teachers and providers in the field. She is also a Professional Growth Advisor for the Child Development Permit. Janet Gonzalez-Mena started her early childhood career in a cooperative preschool as a parent volunteer back in 1966. She then became a Head Start volunteer and ended up as a teacher in a preschool for Spanish-speaking children and their families in 1970s. She has also helped open several pilot programs including a therapeutic child care program and a home-based bilingual preschool program. When Magda Gerber came into her life in the mid-1970s, Janet signed up for an internship with her at the Childrens Health Council in Menlo Park, California. As a result of that experience, later, when she became a child care director, she was able to incorporate much of what she learned into her work and was influential in expanding that program to include an infant center. Training and teaching adults has always been sideline, even when she was working with children and families. She worked as a Head Start trainer and as adjunct faculty in 4 community colleges plus the University of California Santa Cruz credential extension program. She taught for 15 years as full time faculty at Napa Valley College in the Child and Family Studies Program. Since 1991, she has been part of the faculty for WestEds Program for Infant-Toddler Caregivers (PITC) Training of Trainer Institutes. Janet has been writing along with teaching for all these years and is author of numerous articles and 13 books related to early childhood, including Foundations of Early Childhood Education; Infants, Toddlers, and Caregivers (with co-author Dianne Eyer); and Diversity in Early Care and Education: Honoring Differences (Formerly Multicultural Issues in Child Care). She wrote Dragon Mom about herself as parent to help early childhood professionals alleviate guilt when their parenting doesn't live up to their high standards. Her latest passion is understanding more about the Pikler Institute in Budapest, Hungary, where Magda Gerber came from. It took her 30 years to get there after she first heard of it, but her first trip to it in November of 2003 merely whetted her appetite. She has made two more since and is planning for another one. She is fascinated by the approach and is convinced that this residential nursery is a model for the world. She is continuing to learn more about how this approach can be used to improve infant-toddler care and education programs in the United States. She is also working with a group in Mexico to explore how the approach might fit into their models of residential care for infants and toddlers. Janet has a Master of Arts Degree in Human Development from Pacific Oaks in Pasadena, California.

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