Preface Resources for Caregivers Part 1 Focus on the Caregiver Chapter 1 Principles, Practice, and Curriculum What Do You See? Relationships, Interactions, and the Three Rs Caregiving Routines as Opportunities for Three-R Interactions Ten Principles Based on a Philosophy of Respect Principle 1: Involve Infants and Toddlers in Things That Concern Them Principle 2: Invest in Quality Time Principle 3: Learn Each Child's Unique Ways of Communicating and Teach Yours VIDEO OBSERVATION 1: Baby Crying Principle 4: Invest Time and Energy to Build a Total Person Principle 5: Respect Infants and Toddlers as Worthy People Principle 6: Be Honest about Your Feelings Principle 7: Model the Behavior You Want to Teach Principle 8: Recognize Problems as Learning Opportunities, and Let Infants and Toddlers Try to Solve Their Own Principle 9: Build Security by Teaching Trust Principle 10: Be Concerned about the Quality of Development in Each Stage Curriculum and Developmentally Appropriate Practice The Principles in Action: Principle 5 Appropriate Practice Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Chapter 2 Infant-Toddler Education What Do you see? What Infant-Toddler Education Is Not Infant Stimulation Babysitting Preschool What Infant-Toddler Education Is: The Components Curriculum as the Foundation of Infant-Toddler Education VIDEO OBSERVATION 2: Toddler Playing with a Tube and a Ball Implementing the Curriculum Assessing the Effectiveness of the Curriculum: Observing and Recording Education as Facilitating Problem Solving The Principles in Action: Principle 8 The Adult Role in Facilitating Problem Solving Appropriate Practice Infant-Toddler Education and School Readiness Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Chapter 3 Caregiving as Curriculum What Do You See? Thinking Again About Infant-Toddler Curriculum Planning for Attachment Policies That Support Curriculum as Caregiving Assessment Caregiving Routines Feeding VIDEO OBSERVATION 3: Children Feeding Themselves Diapering Toilet Training and Toilet Learning Washing, Bathing, and Grooming â Differing Needs and Perspectives Dressing Napping The Principles in Action: Principle 1 Appropriate Practice Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Chapter 4 Play and Exploration as Curriculum What Do You See? Adult Roles in Play Setting Up Environments for Play Encouraging Interactions and Then Stepping Back VIDEO OBSERVATION 4: Toddlers Playing Outside Supporting Problem Solving Observing Environmental Factors That Influence Play The Principles in Action: Principle 2 Group Size and Age Span Setting Up the Environment to Support Play Happenings Free Choice The Problem of the Match Appropriate Practice Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Part 2 Focus on the Child Chapter 5 Attachment What Do You See? Brain Research Brain Building Blocks and Brain Circuitry Quality Experiences and Stable Neural Pathways Mirror Neurons: Actions and Observations The Principles in Action: Principle Milestones of Attachment Attachment Behaviors: Birth to Six Months Attachment Behavior: Seven to Eighteen Months Supporting Attachment in Quality Programs VIDEO OBSERVATION 5: Toddler "Checking in" While Playing with Chairs DEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Attachment Measuring Attachment Early Research and Contemporary Issues Attachment Issues Infants with Few Attachment Behaviors Infants Who Experience Neglect or Indifference Brain Growth and Attachment-based Programs Children with Special Needs: The Importance of Early Intervention What Is Early Intervention? DEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Attachment Behaviors Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Chapter 6 Perception What Do You See? Sensory Integration Hearing VIDEO OBSERVATION 6: Boy Exploring Toy Car Using Touch and Sound Smell and Taste Touch The Principles in Action: Principle 7 Sight Multisensory Experiences and the Outdoor Environment Children with Special Needs: Educating Families about the Individualized Family Service Plan DEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Behaviors Showing Development of Perception Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Chapter 7 Motor Skills What Do You See? Physical Growth and Motor Skills Brain Growth and Motor Development Importance of Free Movement, Observation, and Imitation Reflexes The Principles in Action: Principle 10 Large Motor Skills and Locomotion Research from the Pikler Institute VIDEO OBSERVATION 7: Children Climbing Stairs Small Motor Skills and Manipulation Encouraging Self-Help Skills Fostering Motor Development Children with Special Needs: Finding Resources DEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Behaviors Showing Development of Motor Skills Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Chapter 8 Cognition What Do You See? The Cognitive Experience Sensorimotor Experience: Piaget Sociocultural Influences: Vygotsky and Piaget Self-Regulating Learners Social Interaction and Cognition Language and Cognition Play and Cognition The Principles in Action: Principle 8 Supporting Cognitive Development The Importance of Real-Life Experiences Brain-based Learning VIDEO OBSERVATION 8: Father Diapering Toddler Children with Special Needs: Early Childhood Inclusion DEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Behaviors Showing Development of Cognition Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Chapter 9 Language What Do You See? The Progression of Language Development Receptive Language Expressive Language What Language Allows a Child to Do: The Cognitive Link The Brain and Early Language Development VIDEO OBSERVATION 9: Children Eating at Table with Caregiver Brain Activity and Language Competency Fostering Language Development Early Literacy The Principles in Action: Principle 3 Early Literacy and School Readiness Cultural Differences, Bilingualism and Dual Language Learners Goals of the "Language Relationship" Children with Special Needs: Supporting Parents and Families DEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Behaviors Showing Development of Language Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Chapter 10 Emotions What Do You See? The Development of Emotions and Feelings Temperament and Resiliency Resiliency and Healthy Emotional Development Helping Infants and Toddlers Cope with Fears Helping Infants and Toddlers Cope with Anger VIDEO OBSERVATION 10: Child Trying to Get Her Turn in a Swing The Principles in Action: Principle 6 Self-Calming Techniques Developing Self-Direction and Self-Regulation The Emotional Brain Stress and Early Brain Development The Impact of Neglect Children with Special Needs: Challenges and Trends DEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Behavior Showing Development of Emotions Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Chapter 11 Social Skills What Do You See? The Principles in Action: Principle 4 Early Social Behaviors Stages of Psychosocial Development Trust Autonomy Initiative Guidance and Discipline: Teaching Social Skills Security and Control for Infants Limits for Toddlers Teaching Prosocial Skills Promoting Healthy Brain Growth VIDEO OBSERVATION 11: Girls Playing Together The Special Need of All Children: Self-E steem Experiences That Foster Self-Esteem DEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAYS: Behaviors Showing Development of Social Skills Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Part 3 Focus on the Program Chapter 12 The Physical Environment What Do You See? A Safe Environment Creating a Safe Physical Environment: A Checklist A Healthful Environment Creating a Healthful and Sanitary Environment: A Checklist Nutrition Feeding Infants Feeding Toddlers VIDEO OBSERVATION 12: Feeding Routine The Learning Environment Layout Eating Sleeping Diapering Toileting Developmental Appropriateness Appropriate Environments for Infants Appropriate Environments for Toddlers Family Child Care and Mixed-Age Groups The Principles in Action: Principle 8 What Should Be in the Play Environment Toys and Materials for Inside Toys and Materials for Outside Assessing the Quality of an Infant-Toddler Environment Balancing Soft and Hard Providing for Intrusion and Seclusion Encouraging Mobility The Open-Closed Dimension The Simple-Complex Dimension Scale Aesthetics Acoustics Order Appropriate Practice Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Chapter 13 The Social Environment What Do You See? Focus Questions Identity Formation The Principles in Action: Principle 1 Attachment Self-Image Cultural Identity Gender Identity Self-Concept and Discipline VIDEO OBSERVATION 13: Child in Sandbox (Redirection) Modeling Self-Esteem by Taking Care of Yourself Appropriate Practice Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Chapter 14 Adult Relations in Infant-Toddler Care and Education Programs What Do You See? Parent-Caregiver Relations Caregiver Stages of Relating to Parents The Principles in Action: Principle 3 Communication with Parents and/or Family Members Service Plan: Focus on the Child Service Plan: Focus on the Family Communication Blocks Opening Up Communication Issues of Parents of Children with Special Needs Parent Education Parents of Children with Special Needs VIDEO OBSERVATION 14: Girl Crawling Through Low Window (Parent Ed Program) Early Care and Education Professionals Relating to the Parents of a Child Who Isn't Doing Well Caregiver Relations The Family Child Care Provider Center Staff Respect as the Key to Adult Relationships Appropriate Practice Summary Online Resources Key Terms Thought/Activity Questions For Further Reading Appendix A Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs: A Checklist Appendix B Environmental Chart Notes Glossary Credits Index
Janet Gonzalez-Mena started her early childhood career in a cooperative preschool as a parent volunteer back in 1966. She then became a Head Start volunteer and ended up as a teacher in a preschool for Spanish-speaking children and their families in 1970's. She has also helped open several pilot programs including a therapeutic child care program and a home-based bilingual preschool program. When Magda Gerber came into her life in the mid-1970's, Janet signed up for an internship with her at the Children's Health Council in Menlo Park, California. As a result of that experience, later, when she became a child care director, she was able to incorporate much of what she learned into her work and was influential in expanding that program to include an infant center. Training and teaching adults has always been sideline, even when she was working with children and families. She worked as a Head Start trainer and as adjunct faculty in 4 community colleges plus the University of California Santa Cruz credential extension program. She taught for 15 years as full time faculty at Napa Valley College in the Child and Family Studies Program. Since 1991, she has been part of the faculty for WestEd's Program for Infant-Toddler Caregivers (PITC) Training of Trainer Institutes. Janet has been writing along with teaching for all these years and is author of numerous articles and 13 books related to early childhood, including Foundations of Early Childhood Education; Infants, Toddlers, and Caregivers (with co-author Dianne Eyer); and Diversity in Early Care and Education: Honoring Differences (Formerly Multicultural Issues in Child Care). She wrote Dragon Mom about herself as parent to help early childhood professionals alleviate guilt when their parenting doesn't live up to their high standards. Her latest passion is understanding more about the Pikler Institute in Budapest, Hungary, where Magda Gerber came from. It took her 30 years to get there after she first heard of it, but her first trip to it in November of 2003 merely whetted her appetite. She has made two more since and is planning for another one. She is fascinated by the approach and is convinced that this residential nursery is a model for the world. She is continuing to learn more about how this approach can be used to improve infant-toddler care and education programs in the United States. She is also working with a group in Mexico to explore how the approach might fit into their models of residential care for infants and toddlers. Janet has a Master of Arts Degree in Human Development from Pacific Oaks in Pasadena, California. Tenured Professor of Early Childhood Education / Child Development at Canada College since 1970, Department Coordinator since 1978 (and author of 30 courses within the ECE/CD Department). Dianne has served on various college committees during the last few years including the Articulation Self Study Committee and the Chairperson for the College Council from 2002 to 2004. She received specialized diversity training under Title V in 2002. In the late 1990's she was a presenter at the Annual Conference of the National Association for the Education of Young Children in Atlanta, GA and Washington D.C. respectively. She is the co-author of Infants, Toddlers and Caregivers, sixth edition, McGraw-Hill, released in 2004. Her community experiences include: Task Force member for the Advancing Careers in Child Development Project (Pacific Oaks College, Pasadena CA); San Mateo County Consortium for Quality Programs; SMC Partnership Council; and membership in SMAEYC. She has been responsible for several grants within the ECE/CD Department including: Foster Care Education, SAFE START/Violence Intervention in ECE (Centers for Disease Control); and the Family Support Program (a PSP and The Council collaboration). She is currently coordinating a grant with First 5 San Mateo County to recruit and retain quality ECE/CD teachers and providers in the field. She is also a Professional Growth Advisor for the Child Development Permit.