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Infectious Disease in Aquaculture
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition Preface Part I: Immune responses in fish and shellfish and their implications for disease control Chapter 1: The innate and adaptive immune system of fish Abstract: 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Overview of immune cells and organs in fish 1.3 Fish innate immune response 1.4 An overview of the adaptive immune response in fish 1.5 Immune regulation: the cytokine network in fish 1.6 Conclusions Chapter 2: Crustacean immune responses and their implications for disease control Abstract: 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Cellular defence 2.3 Hematopoiesis 2.4 Defence against viruses 2.5 Pattern recognition in crustaceans 2.6 The prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade 2.7 Coagulation 2.8 Antimicrobial proteins 2.9 Future trends and conclusions Chapter 3: Immune responses in molluscs and their implications for disease control Abstract: 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The molluscan immune system 3.3 Disease control in bivalves 3.4 Conclusions 3.5 Acknowledgements Chapter 4: Stress and resistance to infectious diseases in fish Abstract: 4.1 Introduction: disease is not just the presence of pathogens 4.2 Fish immune and stress responses 4.3 Individual variability and population level effects 4.4 Conclusions Part II: Advances in disease diagnostics, veterinary drugs and vaccines Chapter 5: Advances in diagnostic methods for mollusc, crustacean and finfish diseases Abstract: 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Mollusc disease diagnostic methods 5.3 Crustacean disease diagnostic methods 5.4 Finfish disease diagnostic methods 5.5 Future trends Chapter 6: Quality assurance in aquatic disease diagnostics Abstract: 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The importance of valid and reliable aquatic disease diagnosis and the role of quality assurance systems 6.3 Sampling submission and handling for aquatic disease diagnosis 6.4 The importance of assay performance in aquatic disease diagnosis 6.5 Validation of quality assurance systems for aquatic diagnostic facilities 6.6 Interpreting and reporting results under a quality assurance system 6.7 Accreditation and auditing of disease diagnostic laboratories 6.8 Conclusions Chapter 7: Antibiotics in aquaculture: reducing their use and maintaining their efficacy Abstract: 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The epidemiology and aetiology of bacterial diseases in aquatic animals 7.3 The use of antibiotics in aquaculture 7.4 Efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in aquaculture 7.5 Laboratory detection of clinical resistance 7.6 The Clinical and Laboratory Science Institute (CLSI) approach to susceptibility testing in aquaculture 7.7 Questions concerning the CLSI approach 7.8 Future trends: the way forward for susceptibility testing 7.9 Conclusions 7.10 Acknowledgements Chapter 8: Considerations for the use of anti-parasitic drugs in aquaculture Abstract: 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Factors in successful treatment with anti-parasitic drugs 8.3 Trigger points for treatment with anti-parasitic drugs in aquaculture 8.4 Future trends Chapter 9: Developments in vaccination against fish bacterial disease Abstract: 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Methods of administration of vaccines for fish 9.3 Determination of effectiveness of the vaccines 9.4 Vaccine composition 9.5 Mode of action of vaccines 9.6 Conclusions Chapter 10: Developments in adjuvants for fish vaccines Abstract: 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Fish immune responses: implications for the development of vaccines and adjuvants 10.3 Oil-adjuvanted fish vaccines 10.4 Vaccines adjuvanted with substances other than oil 10.5 Future trends and conclusions 10.6 Acknowledgements Part III: Development of specific pathogen-free populations and novel approaches for disease control Chapter 11: Development of specific pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp stocks and their application to sustainable shrimp farming Abstract: 11.1 Introduction 11.2 A historical perspective on the concept of domesticated specific pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp 11.3 The development of Litopenaeus vannamei as the dominant species in the Americas 11.4 The adaptation of the specific pathogen-free (SPF) concept to domesticated shrimp stocks 11.5 Maintenance of specific pathogen-free (SPF) status: disease surveillance and control programs 11.6 Conclusions 11.7 Acknowledgements Chapter 12: The role of risk analysis in the development of biosecurity programmes for the maintenance of specific pathogen-free populations Abstract: 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Aquaculture disease risk analysis 12.3 Application of risk analysis to surveillance and biosecurity strategies 12.4 Constraints and future trends 12.5 Conclusions Chapter 13: Developments in genomics relevant to disease control in aquaculture Abstract: 13.1 Introduction 13.2 The genomics toolbox in comparative immunology 13.3 Genomics in finfish disease control 13.4 Genomics in shellfish and crustacean disease control 13.5 Future trends Chapter 14: Bacteria and bacteriophages as biological agents for disease control in aquaculture Abstract: 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Isolation of bacteria for biocontrol 14.3 Antagonistic activity of bacterial agents 14.4 Colonization and persistence within the host 14.5 Considerations for the design of pathogen challenge tests 14.6 Safety of bacterial biocontrol agents and perspectives on future development 14.7 Biocontrol using bacteriophages 14.8 Strengths and challenges to phage biocontrol 14.9 Future trends Chapter 15: Managing the microbiota in aquaculture systems for disease prevention and control Abstract: 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Control strategies against diseases 15.3 The microbial maturation concept 15.4 Manipulating type and number of bacteria: probiotics and prebiotics 15.5 Managing bacterial activity by means of quorum sensing (QS) 15.6 Host-microbe interactions affecting host health in aquaculture: the need for knowledge 15.7 Conclusions 15.8 Acknowledgements Chapter 16: Natural antimicrobial compounds for use in aquaculture Abstract: 16.1 Introduction: microbial diseases in aquaculture 16.2 Current problems in microbial disease control 16.3 Public health and ethical issues relating to the use of antibiotics for disease control in aquaculture 16.4 Alternative antimicrobial compounds 16.5 Origin of alternative antimicrobials 16.6 Plant antimicrobials 16.7 Possible mode of action of herbal antimicrobials 16.8 Routes of administration of antimicrobial herbal extracts to fish and shrimps 16.9 Conclusions Chapter 17: The potential for antimicrobial peptides to improve fish health in aquaculture Abstract: 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Strategies for preventing disease in fish 17.3 Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) 17.4 The potential role of antimicrobial peptides in preventing and treating fish diseases 17.5 Future trends and conclusions 17.6 Acknowledgements Chapter 18: Advances in non-chemical methods for parasite prevention and control in fish Abstract: 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Principles of disease management without chemicals 18.3 Preventative measures 18.4 Disease management 18.5 Interventions for parasite prevention and control in fish 18.6 Conclusions Index

About the Author

Brian Austin is the Director of the Institute of Aquaculture and Professor of Microbiology at the University of Stirling. He is internationally-known for his research on infectious disease in aquaculture.

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