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Infiltration Theory for Hydrologic Applications


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Table of Contents

Preface vii 1. Introduction 1 Brief History 1 Runoff Mechanisms 3 Engineering and Scientific Approaches to Hydrology 4 Objective and Scope of this Work 5 2. Basic Porous Media Hydraulics 7 Capillary Properties of Soil Water 7 Porous Media 9 Darcy's Law 12 Hydraulic Characteristics of Porous Media 13 Steady Flow Soil Water Relations 14 Functional Representation of Hydraulic Characteristics 18 3. Some Essentials of One-Dimensional Porous Media Dynamics 25 Introduction 25 Absorption: Gravity-Free Intake 27 Infiltration: Vertical Flow 31 Mathematical Approximations for Soil Water Flow 34 Approximations for Soil Hydraulic Characteristics 36 4. A Realistic Integrable Nonlinear Model for Transient Unsaturated Flow 41 Introduction 41 Integrable Forms of Richards' Equation' 43 Solution of Nonlinear Diffusion Equation 46 Required Forms for Soil Characteristics 49 Solution of the Integrable Form 55 Discussion and Summary 60 5. Absorption and Infiltration Relations and the Infiltrability-Depth Approximation 63 Introduction 63 Absorption 65 Infiltration 73 Stability of Flux-ConcentrationR elation 85 6. Infiltrability Models: Comparisons and Application 97 Introduction 97 Timing of Pending 98 Time Explicit Approximations 108 Applying the Infiltrability Models to Variable Rainfall Patterns 114 7. Applying Infiltration Models in Layered Soils and Redistribution Cases 119 Introduction 119 Redistribution and Reinfiltration 119 Layered Soils 122 8. Field Measurements of Infiltration Parameters 135 Introduction 135 Drip Infiltrometers 136 Ring Infiltrometers 138 Permeameters 141 9. Infiltration and Runoff on a Hillslope 159 Introduction 159 General Surface Flow and Infiltration Interaction 160 Effect of Surface Relief on Surface Water Losses 162 Infiltration Heterogeneity and Runoff 164 Appendices 185 I. Derivation of the Infiltration Integral from Richards' Equation 185 II. Attenuation of Characteristic Kinematic Shock in Soil Water Flow 187 III. Finite Difference Solution Method for Richards' Equation 190 List of Symbols and Abbreviations 199 References 203 Index 211

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