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Information Privacy Engineering and Privacy by Design
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Table of Contents

Preface xxii PART I: OVERVIEW 1 Chapter 1: Security and Cryptography Concepts 2 1.1 Cybersecurity, Information Security, and Network Security 2 Security Objectives 3 The Challenges of Information Security 5 1.2 Security Attacks 6 Passive Attacks 8 Active Attacks 8 1.3 Security Services 10 Authentication 10 Access Control 11 Data Confidentiality 11 Data Integrity 11 Nonrepudiation 12 Availability Service 12 1.4 Security Mechanisms 12 1.5 Cryptographic Algorithms 13 Keyless Algorithms 14 Single-Key Algorithms 14 Two-Key Algorithms 15 1.6 Symmetric Encryption 15 1.7 Asymmetric Encryption 17 1.8 Cryptographic Hash Functions 20 1.9 Digital Signatures 22 1.10 Practical Considerations 23 Selection of Cryptographic Algorithms and Key Lengths 23 Implementation Considerations 24 Lightweight Cryptographic Algorithms 24 Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms 25 1.11 Public-Key Infrastructure 25 Public-Key Certificates 25 PKI Architecture 27 1.12 Network Security 29 Communications Security 29 Device Security 30 1.13 Key Terms and Review Questions 30 Key Terms 30 Review Questions 31 1.14 References 31 Chapter 2: Information Privacy Concepts 32 2.1 Key Privacy Terminology 32 2.2 Privacy by Design 35 Privacy by Design Principles 35 Requirements and Policy Development 37 Privacy Risk Assessment 37 Privacy and Security Control Selection 39 Privacy Program and Integration Plan 40 2.3 Privacy Engineering 41 Privacy Implementation 44 System Integration 44 Privacy Testing and Evaluation 45 Privacy Auditing and Incident Response 45 2.4 Privacy and Security 46 Areas of Overlap Between Security and Privacy 46 Trade-Offs Between Security and Privacy 48 2.5 Privacy Versus Utility 48 2.6 Usable Privacy 49 Users of Privacy Services and Functions 50 Usability and Utility 50 2.7 Key Terms and Review Questions 50 Key Terms 50 Review Questions 51 2.8 References 51 PART II: PRIVACY REQUIREMENTS AND THREATS 53 Chapter 3: Information Privacy Requirements and Guidelines 54 3.1 Personally Identifiable Information and Personal Data 55 Sources of PII 57 Sensitivity of PII 58 3.2 Personal Information That Is Not PII 59 3.3 Fair Information Practice Principles 63 3.4 Privacy Regulations 66 European Union 66 U.S. Privacy Laws and Regulations 67 3.5 Privacy Standards 68 International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 69 National Institute of Standards and Technology 77 3.6 Privacy Best Practices 88 Information Security Forum (ISF) 88 Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) 90 3.7 Key Terms and Review Questions 91 Key Terms 91 Review Questions 91 3.8 References 92 Chapter 4: Information Privacy Threats and Vulnerabilities 94 4.1 The Evolving Threat Environment 95 Overall Impact of Advances in Technology 95 Repurposing Collected Data 96 Means of Collection of PII 96 4.2 Privacy Threat Taxonomy 97 Information Collection 98 Information Processing 98 Information Dissemination 98 Invasions 99 4.3 NIST Threat Model 100 4.4 Threat Sources 105 4.5 Identifying Threats 106 4.6 Privacy Vulnerabilities 108 Vulnerability Categories 108 Location of Privacy Vulnerabilities 109 National Vulnerability Database and Common Vulnerability Scoring System 110 4.7 Key Terms and Review Questions 114 Key Terms 114 Review Questions 115 4.8 References 116 PART III: TECHNICAL SECURITY CONTROLS FOR PRIVACY 117 Chapter 5: System Access 118 5.1 System Access Concepts 119 Privileges 119 System Access Functions 120 Privacy Considerations for System Access 121 5.2 Authorization 122 Privacy Authorization 123 5.3 User Authentication 124 Means of Authentication 125 Multifactor Authentication 126 A Model for Electronic User Authentication 127 5.4 Access Control 129 Subjects, Objects, and Access Rights 130 Access Control Policies 131 Discretionary Access Control 131 Role-Based Access Control 133 Attribute-Based Access Control 135 5.5 Identity and Access Management 140 IAM Architecture 140 Federated Identity Management 142 5.6 Key Terms and Review Questions 144 Key Terms 144 Review Questions 145 5.7 Reference 145 Chapter 6: Malicious Software and Intruders 146 6.1 Malware Protection Activities 147 Types of Malware 147 The Nature of the Malware Threat 149 Practical Malware Protection 150 6.2 Malware Protection Software 153 Capabilities of Malware Protection Software 153 Managing Malware Protection Software 154 6.3 Firewalls 155 Firewall Characteristics 155 Types of Firewalls 156 Next-Generation Firewalls 163 DMZ Networks 164 The Modern IT Perimeter 165 6.4 Intrusion Detection 166 Basic Intrusion Detection Principles 167 Approaches to Intrusion Detection 167 Host-Based Intrusion Detection Techniques 169 Network-Based Intrusion Detection Systems 169 IDS Best Practices 171 6.5 Key Terms and Review Questions 172 Key Terms 172 Review Questions 173 6.6 References 174 PART IV: PRIVACY ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES 175 Chapter 7: Privacy in Databases 176 7.1 Basic Concepts 178 Personal Data Attributes 179 Types of Data Files 180 7.2 Re-Identification Attacks 183 Types of Attacks 184 Potential Attackers 186 Disclosure Risks 186 Applicability to Privacy Threats 187 7.3 De-Identification of Direct Identifiers 188 Anonymization 189 Pseudonymization 189 7.4 De-Identification of Quasi-Identifiers in Microdata Files 190 Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing 192 Disclosure Risk Versus Data Utility 193 PPDP Techniques 194 7.5 K-Anonymity, L-Diversity, and T-Closeness 196 K-Anonymity 196 L-Diversity 198 T-Closeness 199 7.6 Summary Table Protection 199 Frequency Tables 200 Magnitude Tables 203 7.7 Privacy in Queryable Databases 204 Privacy Threats 205 Protecting Queryable Databases 206 7.8 Key Terms and Review Questions 211 Key Terms 211 Review Questions 212 7.9 References 212 Chapter 8: Online Privacy 214 8.1 The Online Ecosystem for Personal Data 215 8.2 Web Security and Privacy 217 Web Server Security and Privacy 218 Web Application Security and Privacy 219 Web Browser Security and Privacy 222 8.3 Mobile App Security 224 Mobile Ecosystem 224 Mobile Device Vulnerabilities 225 BYOD Policies 227 Mobile Application Vetting 229 Resources for Mobile Device Security 230 8.4 Online Privacy Threats 231 Web Application Privacy 231 Mobile App Privacy 232 8.5 Online Privacy Requirements 234 Online Privacy Principles 234 Online Privacy Framework 236 Simplified Consumer Choice 241 Transparency of Data Practices 241 8.6 Privacy Notices 242 Notice Requirements 243 Notice Content 243 Notice Structure 246 Mobile App Privacy Notices 246 Privacy Notice Design Space 248 8.7 Tracking 250 Cookies 250 Other Tracking Technologies 253 Do Not Track 254 8.8 Key Terms and Review Questions 254 Key Terms 254 Review Questions 255 8.9 References 255 Chapter 9: Other PET Topics 258 9.1 Data Loss Prevention 258 Data Classification and Identification 259 Data States 260 DLP for Email 262 DLP Model 263 9.2 The Internet of Things 266 Things on the Internet of Things 266 Components of IoT-Enabled Things 266 IoT and Cloud Context 267 9.3 IoT Security 270 IoT Device Capabilities 270 Security Challenges of the IoT Ecosystem 271 IoT Security Objectives 273 9.4 IoT Privacy 274 An IoT Model 275 Privacy Engineering Objectives and Risks 276 Challenges for Organizations 278 9.5 Cloud Computing 280 Cloud Computing Elements 280 Threats for Cloud Service Users 284 9.6 Cloud Privacy 285 Data Collection 286 Storage 287 Sharing and Processing 290 Deletion 290 9.7 Key Terms and Review Questions 290 Key Terms 290 Review Questions 291 9.8 References 291 PART V: INFORMATION PRIVACY MANAGEMENT 293 Chapter 10: Information Privacy Governance and Management 294 10.1 Information Security Governance 295 Information Security Management System 295 Information Security Governance Concepts 295 Security Governance Components 298 Integration with Enterprise Architecture 303 Policies and Guidance 307 10.2 Information Privacy Governance 308 Information Privacy Roles 308 The Privacy Program Plan 312 10.3 Information Privacy Management 315 Key Areas of Privacy Management 316 Privacy Planning 317 Privacy Policy 319 10.4 OASIS Privacy Management Reference Model 322 Privacy Management Reference Model and Methodology (PMRM) 322 Privacy by Design Documentation for Software Engineers 328 10.5 Key Terms and Review Questions 331 Key Terms 331 Review Questions 331 10.6 Reference 332 Chapter 11: Risk Management and Privacy Impact Assessment 334 11.1 Risk Assessment 335 Risk Assessment Process 335 Risk Assessment Challenges 339 Quantitative Risk Assessment 340 Qualitative Risk Assessment 342 11.2 Risk Management 346 NIST Risk Management Framework 347 ISO 27005: Information Security Risk Management 348 Risk Evaluation 351 Risk Treatment 352 11.3 Privacy Risk Assessment 353 Privacy Impact 356 Likelihood 361 Assessing Privacy Risk 363 11.4 Privacy Impact Assessment 365 Privacy Threshold Analysis 365 Preparing for a PIA 366 Identify PII Information Flows 367 Identify Potential User Behavior 367 Determine Relevant Privacy Safeguarding Requirements 368 Assess Privacy Risk 368 Determine Risk Treatment 368 The PIA Report 369 Implement Risk Treatment 370 Review/Audit Implementation 370 Examples 371 11.5 Key Terms and Review Questions 371 Key Terms 371 Review Questions 372 11.6 References 372 Chapter 12: Privacy Awareness, Training, and Education 374 12.1 Information Privacy Awareness 376 Awareness Topics 377 Awareness Program Communication Materials 378 Awareness Program Evaluation 379 12.2 Privacy Training and Education 380 Cybersecurity Essentials 380 Role-Based Training 381 Education and Certification 383 12.3 Acceptable Use Policies 384 Information Security Acceptable Use Policy 384 PII Acceptable Use Policy 386 12.4 Key Terms and Review Questions 386 Key Terms 386 Review Questions 387 12.5 References 387 Chapter 13: Event Monitoring, Auditing, and Incident Response 388 13.1 Event Monitoring 388 Security Event Logging 389 Security Event Management 391 Event Logging Related to PII 392 13.2 Information Security Auditing 393 Data to Collect for Auditing 394 Internal and External Audits 395 Security Audit Controls 396 13.3 Information Privacy Auditing 398 Privacy Audit Checklist 398 Privacy Controls 400 13.4 Privacy Incident Management and Response 401 Objectives of Privacy Incident Management 401 Privacy Incident Response Team 402 Preparing for Privacy Incident Response 403 Detection and Analysis 405 Containment, Eradication, and Recovery 406 Notification to Affected Individuals 407 Post-Incident Activity 408 13.5 Key Terms and Review Questions 409 Key Terms 409 Review Questions 410 13.6 References 410 Part VI: Legal and Regulatory Requirements 411 Chapter 14: The EU General Data Protection Regulation 412 14.1 Key Roles and Terms in the GDPR 413 14.2 Structure of the GDPR 415 14.3 GDPR Objectives and Scope 417 Objectives 417 Scope of the GDPR 418 14.4 GDPR Principles 420 Fairness421 Lawful 422 Transparency 423 14.5 Restrictions on Certain Types of Personal Data 423 Children's Personal Data 423 Special Categories of Personal Data 424 14.6 Rights of the Data Subject 426 14.7 Controller, Processor, and Data Protection Officer 428 Data Protection by Design and Default 428 Records of Processing Activities 429 Security of Processing 431 Data Protection Officer 431 14.8 Data Protection Impact Assessment 433 Risk and High Risk 433 Determining Whether a DPIA Is Needed 434 DPIA Process 436 GDPR Requirements 438 Criteria for an Acceptable DPIA 439 14.9 Key Terms and Review Questions 441 Key Terms 441 Review Questions 441 14.10 References 442 Chapter 15: U.S. Privacy Laws 444 15.1 A Survey of Federal U.S. Privacy Laws 445 15.2 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 449 HIPAA Overview 449 HIPAA Privacy Rule 450 15.3 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act 456 Breach Notification 456 Encryption of PHI 457 Data Destruction 459 15.4 Children's Online Privacy Protection Act 460 General Provisions 460 The COPPA Final Rule 461 15.5 California Consumer Privacy Act 462 Basic Concepts 462 Rights of Consumers 466 Comparison with the GDPR 468 15.6 Key Terms and Review Questions 470 Key Terms 470 Review Questions 470 15.7 References 471 Index 472 Appendix (Online Only): Answers to Review Questions

About the Author

Dr. William Stallings has made a unique contribution to understanding the broad sweep of technical developments in computer security, computer networking, and computer architecture. He has authored 18 textbooks and, counting revised editions, a total of 70 books on various aspects of these subjects. His writings have appeared in numerous ACM and IEEE publications, including the Proceedings of the IEEE and ACM Computing Reviews. He has 13 times received the award for the best computer science textbook of the year from the Text and Academic Authors Association. With more than 30 years in the field, he has been a technical contributor, a technical manager, and an executive with several high-technology firms. He has designed and implemented both TCP/IP-based and OSI-based protocol suites on a variety of computers and operating systems, ranging from microcomputers to mainframes. Currently he is an independent consultant whose clients have included computer and networking manufacturers and customers, software development firms, and leading-edge government research institutions. He created and maintains the Computer Science Student Resource Site, at computersciencestudent.com. This site provides documents and links on a variety of subjects of general interest to computer science students and professionals. He is a member of the editorial board of Cryptologia, a scholarly journal devoted to all aspects of cryptology. Dr. Stallings holds a PhD from M.I.T. in Computer Science and a B.S. from Notre Dame in electrical engineering.

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