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Interactions in Soil
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Table of Contents

Preface.- 1. Introduction: Soils and Their Promotion of Plant Growth; J. Dighton.- 1.1. Introduction.- 1.2. Suppressive soils.- 1.3. Soil biodiversity.- 1.4. The rhizosphere as a unique niche.- 1.4.1. Antifungal properties of the rhizosphere.- 1.4.2. Herbivory protection in the rhizosphere.- 1.4.3. Mycorrhizae as a component of the rhizosphere.- 1.5. Viruses.- 1.6. Earthworms: ecosystem engineers and soil disturbance.- 1.7. Pollution, urbanization and invasive species.- 1.8. New tools in the tool box: Molecular determination of diversity and transcriptomics for function.- 1.9. Conclusion.- References.- 2. Soils supporting Biodiversity; E. Havlicek, E. Mitchell.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Soils as complex systems.- 2.3. Soils as a product of species diversity.- 2.3.1. Functional roles of soil dwellers.- 2.3.2. Plants considered as soil dwellers.- 2.3.3. Soil properties and soil organisms.- 2.4. Aggregates as functional units.- 2.4.1. Structure, a key property of soils.- 2.4.1.1. Good structure versus bad structure.- 2.4.2. Formation of aggregates.- 2.4.2.1. Physical mechanisms in subsoil.- 2.4.2.2. Biological mechanisms in topsoil.- 2.5. Biodiversity as a product of soils.- 2.5.1. Heterogeneity of habitats and functions.- 2.5.1.1. Approach to body size.- 2.5.1.2. Approach according to the function of organisms.- 2.5.2. Why is soil biodiversity so high?.- 2.5.2.1. Spatial heterogeneity.- 2.5.2.2. Food resources.- 2.6. Conclusion: beyond soil science.- References.- 3. Beneficial Interactions in the Rhizosphere; W. H. G. Hol et al.- 3.1. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.- 3.1.1. Mechanisms: nutrients, protection, hormones.- 3.1.1.1. Nutrients.- 3.1.1.2. Tolerance to other abiotic stress.- 3.1.1.3. Plant protection.- 3.1.1.4. Plant hormones.- 3.1.2. Role of PGPR species identity, diversity, and function.- 3.1.3. Latest developments.- 3.2. Mycorrhizal fungi.- 3.2.1. Mechanisms: nutrients, protection, hormones.- 3.2.1.1. Nutrients.- 3.2.1.2. Plant protection against herbivores and pathogens.- 3.2.1.3. Tolerance to abiotic stress.- 3.2.2. Role of mycorrhizal species identity and diversity.- 3.2.3. Latest developments.- 3.3. Other plant growth promoting fungi.- 3.3.1. Mechanisms: nutrients, protection, hormones.- 3.3.1.1. Nutrients.- 3.3.1.2. Plant protection against herbivores and pathogens.- 3.3.1.3. Tolerance to abiotic stress.- 3.3.1.4. Plant hormones.- 3.3.2. Latest developments.- 3.4. Interactions between mycorrhizal fungi, other fungi and rhizobacteria.- 3.5. Concluding thoughts and summary.- References.- 4. Trophic Interactions in Soil that Support Primary Production; J. Krumins.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Cyclic nature of food webs in soils.- 4.3. The paradox of herbivory.- 4.3.1. Herbivore efficiency.- 4.4. Multi-trophic biodiversity of soils supporting plant communities.- 4.4.1. What we know about soil biodiversity.- 4.4.2. How soil diversity can support primary production.- 4.5. Discussion and a view to future research.- References.- 5. Soils Suppressing Biodiversity; G. Peres.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Biodiversity belowground as well as aboveground.- 5.2.1. Soil biodiversity and soil properties.- 5.3. Biodiversity of contaminated soils.- 5.4. Soil biodiversity and agriculture.- 5.4.1. Soil tillage.- 5.4.1.1. Earthworms.- 5.4.1.2. Collembola.- 5.4.1.3. Nematodes.- 5.4.1.4. Microoganisms.- 5.4.2. Organic farming and conventional farming.- 5.4.2.1. Impact of organic farming on soil biodiversity.- 5.4.2.2. Organic vineyards.- 5.4.2.3. Organic farming in crop systems.- 5.4.2.4. Organic grassland farming.- 5.4.3. From forest ecosystem to agroforestry systems.- 5.4.3.1. Forest ecosystem.- 5.4.3.2. How can soil biodiversity and functions be impacted in forest ecosystem?.- 5.4.3.3. Agroforestry systems.- 5.5. Conclusions.- References.- 6. Root Pathogens; A. Termorshuizen.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Examples of root pathogens.- 6.3. Function of root pathogens.- 6.4. Ecology of root pathogens.- 6.4.1. Managed vegetations.- 6.4.2. Unmanaged vegetations.- 6.5. Conclusions.- References.- 7. Non-Trophic Interactions: Allelopathy; P. Pavlovic et al.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. Effects of allelopathic chemicals on plants and microbes.- 7.2.1. The mode of action.- 7.2.2. Role of allelopathy in promoting plant growth and ecosystem regeneration.- 7.2.3. Role of allelopathy in restricting plant growth and ecosystem regeneration.- 7.3. Examples of allelopathy in managed and natural ecosystems.- 7.3.1. Managed ecosystems.- 7.3.1.1. Phytotoxicity and soil sickness.- 7.3.1.2. Allelopathic crops.- 7.3.1.3. Agroforestry systems.- 7.3.1.4. Forest ecosystems.- 7.3.2. Natural ecosystems.- 7.3.2.1. Population and community structure changes by invasive species.- 7.4. Conclusion.- 7.5. Acknowledgements.- References.- 8. Viruses in Soil; B. Reavy et al.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. Abundance and diversity of viruses in soils.- 8.3. Effects of viruses pathogenic to soil-inhabiting organisms.- 8.4. Plant-pathogenic viruses in soil.- 8.5. Gene transfer.- 8.6. Future prospects.- References.- 9. Soils Suppressing and Promoting Non-native Plant Invasions; K. Elgersma.- 9.1. Effects of soils on invasion rates.- 9.1.1. Soil fertility and the productivity-invasibility relationship.- 9.1.2. Soil biota and biotic resistance to invasion.- 9.1.3. Interactive effects of soil fertility and soil biota on invisibility.- 9.2. Effects of invasions on soils and plant-soil feedbacks.- 9.2.1. Feedbacks between plant invasion and soil fertility.- 9.2.2. Feedbacks between plant invasion and soil biota.- 9.2.3. Feedbacks driven by interactions between soil biota and fertility.- 9.3. Conclusions.- References.- 10. Urban Soils and the Challenge of Restoring Natural Ecosystems; P.A. Hazelton, A. Clements.- 10.1. Introduction.- 10.2. Case study: Sydney, Australia.- 10.3. Conclusions.- References.- 11. Towards a Holistic Approach to Soils and Plant Growth; D. C. Coleman, S. Fu.- 11.1. Introduction.- 11.2. Temporal and spatial dimensions of soil ecology.- 11.3. An integrative framework.- References.- Index.

About the Author

1) John Dighton, Professor, Rutgers State University of New Jersey, Station Director of Pinelands Field Station, President of the Soil Ecology Society, USA He is an expert in soil ecology and leads research in the area through the Pinelands Field Station. He has written several articles for good international journals and book chapters (first ones start appearing in the 80s), including for Springer, but also for Elsevier (I would say mostly), Wiley, Cambridge University Press, among others. Some of his papers were very well cited. He is member of the Editorial Board of several international journals such as Mycological Research (Elsevier), Soil Biology and Biochemistry (Elsevier), Bartonia (Philadelphia Botanical Club). He edited a book in 1993 - Fungi in Ecosystem Processes (Mycology Series) - Marcel Dekker Publishers (now part of the Taylor & Francis Group). It is still available through Amazon for 187 USD. There will be a Society meeting in 2013. The proceedings of these meetings are always published by Elsevier. As Dighton is the President of the Society as of January this year, there could be room for some exploring there. 2) Jennifer Adams Krumins, Assistant Professor, Montclair State University, USA Invited by John Dighton for this proposed book. She has published several articles in international journals including Springer, Elsevier, Wiley, and a very highly cited article co- published in Nature Reviews - Microbiology (403 citations since 2006).

Reviews

"This timely and high-quality publication contains 11 chapters that focus on the question: What makes for a good soil and what challenges are there for sustaining a soil for optimal plant growth? ... Overall, this is an excellent summary of present understanding, and highlights the need for continued study if the overarching question is ever to be fully answered." (Peter J. Gregory, The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 91 (2), June, 2016)

"Interactions in Soil, edited by Dighton (Rutgers) and Krumins (Montclair State), is a timely book on an important topic of growing interest to scholars, conservationists, farmers, and all those interested in the role of healthy soils, particularly soil biology, in providing ecosystem services to society. ... it is a useful resource, especially for graduate students and scholars in the field. ... Summing Up: Recommended. Graduate students and researchers/faculty." (W. J. R. Reeve, Choice, Vol. 52 (6), February, 2015)

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