Contributors xi Preface xxiii Section I: Epidemiology 1 Classification of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance 3 Dianna J. Magliano, Paul Zimmet and Jonathan E. Shaw 2 Epidemiology and risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus 17 Andrea K. Steck and Marian J. Rewers 3 Epidemiology and geography of type 2 diabetes mellitus 29 Qing Qiao, Desmond E.Williams, Giuseppina Imperatore, K.M. Venkat Narayan and Jaakko Tuomilehto Section II: Physiology of pancreatic function 4 Development and maintenance of the islet ss cell 55 Teresa L. Mastracci, Raghavendra G. Mirmira and Ryan M. Anderson 5 Pancreatic morphology in normal and diabetic states 69 Rebecca L. Hull and Steven E. Kahn 6 Insulin gene expression and biosynthesis 82 Vincent Poitout, Roland Stein and Christopher J. Rhodes 7 ss-Cell biology of insulin secretion 96 Susumu Seino, Tadao Shibasaki and Kohtaro Minami 8 Normal ss-cell function 108 Andrea Natali, Stefano Del Prato and Andrea Mari 9 Neuropeptides and islet hormone secretion 125 Bo Ahren 10 Biosynthesis secretion and action of glucagon 136 Pierre J. Lefebvre 11 Incretin physiology in health and disease 145 Juris J. Meier and Michael A. Nauck Section III: Normal physiology of insulin action 12 Mechanisms of insulin signal transduction 163 Paul R. Langlais, Lawrence J. Mandarino and W. Timothy Garvey 13 Regulation of glucose metabolism in liver 193 Shawn C. Burgess 14 Insulin actions in vivo: glucose metabolism 211 Ele Ferrannini and Ralph A. DeFronzo 15 Measuring insulin action in vivo 234 Richard N. Bergman and Marilyn Ader 16 Protein metabolism in health and diabetes 250 Elena Volpi and Jared M. Dickinson 17 Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism hypolipidemic agents and therapeutic goals 262 Gissette Reyes-Soffer and Henry N. Ginsberg 18 Metabolomics: applications in type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance 275 Sean H. Adams and John W. Newman Section IV: NAFLD NASH and non-traditional associations with diabetes 19 Pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) 283 Hannele Yki-Jarvinen 20 Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) 292 Fernando Bril, Kwame Ntim, Romina Lomonaco and Kenneth Cusi 21 Type 2 diabetes and cancer 306 Emily Jane Gallagher, Ruslan Novosyadlyy and Derek LeRoith 22 Diabetes and sleep apnea 316 Abd A. Tahrani Section V: Pathogenesis 23 The insulin resistance syndrome 339 Naveed Sattar, Paul Welsh and David Preiss 24 ss-Cell mass and function in human type 2 diabetes 354 Piero Marchetti and Ele Ferrannini 25 Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus 371 Ralph A. DeFronzo 26 The genetics of type 2 diabetes 401 Emma Ahlqvist and Leif Groop 27 Glucose toxicity 413 Hannele Yki-Jarvinen and Donald A. McClain 28 Monogenic disorders of the ss cell 426 Ali J. Chakera and Andrew T. Hattersley 29 Immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in Western society 442 Alberto Pugliese 30 Molecular genetics of type 1 diabetes 454 M. Ann Kelly, Simon D. Rees, Anthony H. Barnett and Stephen C. Bain Section VI: Obesity 31 The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes the role of gut factors 469 Daniel S. Hsia and William T. Cefalu 32 The role of energy metabolism in the regulation of energy balance 479 Charmaine S. Tam and Eric Ravussin 33 Treatment of obesity: lifestyle and pharmacotherapy 489 Arne Astrup 34 Treatment of obesity: bariatric surgery 505 Karl J. Neff Ele Ferrannini and Carel W. le Roux 35 Animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes 519 David A. York, Mie Jung, Park-York and Timothy Gilbertson 36 The role of the hypothalamus in themaintenance of energy balance and peripheral glucose control 529 Luis Varela and Tamas L. Horvath Section VII: Clinical trial evidence in diabetes 37 Prevention of type 1 diabetes 541 Jay S. Skyler 38 Prevention of type 2 diabetes 550 Thomas Yates and Melanie J. Davies 39 Prevention of diabetic microvascular complications 564 Alice P.S. Kong and Juliana C.N. Chan Section VIII: Management of diabetes: diet exercise and drugs 40 Dietary management of diabetes mellitus in Europe and North America 577 Jim I. Mann and Alexandra Chisholm 41 Exercise 589 Henrik Galbo and Erik A. Richter 42 Sulfonylureas and meglitinides: insights into physiology and translational clinical utility 615 Harold E. Lebovitz and Arne Melander 43 Metformin and other biguanides: pharmacology and therapeutic usage 641 Susan L. Samson and Alan J. Garber 44 PPAR agonists in the treatment of diabetes 657 Sunder Mudaliar and Robert R. Henry 45 -Glucosidase inhibitors 673 Josee Leroux-Stewart, Remi Rabasa-Lhoret and Jean-Louis Chiasson 46 Combination therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus 686 Muhammad Abdul-Ghani, Ralph A. DeFronzo and Roy Eldor 47 New drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus 709 Clifford J. Bailey 48 Incretin-based therapies 726 Michael A. Nauck and Juris J. Meier 49 Insulin pumps 745 Dace L. Trence and Irl B. Hirsch 50 Innovative therapies in diabetes: colesevelam and bromocriptine 758 Shamsa Ali and Vivian Fonseca Section IX: Management of diabetes: monitoring and other interventions 51 Implantable pumps and artificial and bio-artificial pancreas system 767 William V. Tamborlane and Miladys M. Palau-Collazo 52 Pancreas and islet transplantation 774 R. Paul Robertson 53 Hypoglycemia and other complications of insulin therapy 783 Stephanie A. Amiel 54 Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar state 799 Abbas E. Kitabchi, Guillermo E. Umpierrez and Mary Beth Murphy Section X: Management of diabetes: glucose and lipid monitoring specific subgroups 55 Type 2 diabetes in obese adolescents: pathophysiology and treatment 817 Grace Kim and Sonia Caprio 56 Diabetes in pregnancy 823 Yoel Toledano, Eran Hadar and Moshe Hod 57 Aging and diabetes mellitus 836 Hermes Florez, Jorge Ruiz and Medha Munshi 58 Psychological problems and management of patients with diabetes mellitus 846 Alan M. Delamater, Ashley Marchante, and Jennifer Hernandez 59 Glycated hemoglobin serum proteins and other markers as tools for monitoring 853 Susan M. Gerber, Douglas F. Stickle, Intekhab Ahmed, and Serge A. Jabbour Section XI: Complications of diabetes: general and microvasular 60 Pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications 875 Josephine M. Forbes and Brooke Harcourt 61 Diabetic retinopathy and other ocular complications 889 Gavin S. Tan and Tien YinWong 62 Diabetic nephropathy 911 George Jerums, Elif I. Ekinci, Erosha Premaratne, Scott T. Baker, Sianna Panagiotopoulos and Richard J. MacIsaac 63 Pathology of human diabetic neuropathy 926 M. Mojaddidi, A.K. Sharma and Rayaz A. Malik 64 Autonomic neuropathy 939 Chinmay S. Marathe, Liza Phillips and Michael Horowitz 65 Connective tissue disorders in diabetes 953 Arlan L. Rosenbloom 66 The diabetic foot 964 Frank L. Bowling and Andrew J.M. Boulton 67 Erectile dysfunction in diabetes mellitus 975 Michael H. Cummings and Rajesh Rajendran 68 Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus 988 Wenche S. Borgnakke and Robert J. Genco Section XII: Complications of diabetes: macrovascular 69 Epidemiology of macrovascular disease and hypertension in diabetes mellitus 1007 Jaakko Tuomilehto, Daiva Rastenyte, Qing Qiao, Noel C. Barengo and Karl Matz 70 Atherogenesis coronary heart disease and insulin resistance syndrome in diabetes 1031 Barak Zafrir and Jorge Plutzky 71 Endothelial function and metabolic syndrome 1046 Xinpu Chen and Sridevi Devaraj 72 Hemostatic abnormalities in diabetes mellitus 1051 R.A. Ajjan and Peter J. Grant 73 Clinical features and treatment of coronary heart disease in diabetes 1064 Eberhard Standl, Michael Erbach, Markolf Hanefeld, Oliver Schnell, Bernd Stratmann and Diethelm Tschoepe 74 Arterial hypertension in diabetes: etiology and treatment 1079 Colleen Flynn and George Bakris 75 Peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus 1091 Debabrata Mukherjee Section XIII: Diabetes and public health 76 The diabetes challenge: from human and social rights to the empowerment of people with diabetes 1105 C.T. Di Iorio, Fabrizio Carinci and M. Massi Benedetti 77 The economics of diabetes care: a global perspective 1113 Rhys Williams Index i
Ralph DeFronzo, Professor of Medicine and Chief of the Diabetes Division, The University of Texas Health Science Centre at San Antonio, and Deputy Director of Texas Diabetic Institute, San Antonio, Texas, USA. Ele Ferrannini, Professor of Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa School of Medicine, Pisa, Italy. K. George M. M Alberti, Visiting Professor, King's College, London, UK; Senior Research Investigator, Imperial College, London, UK; Emeritus Professor of Medicine, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne. Paul Zimmet, Director Emeritus, Victor Smorgon Diabetes Centre, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute; Adjunct Professor, Monash University; Honorary President, International Diabetes Federation; Chair, Programme Committee, World Diabetes Congress 2013, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.