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Introduction to Cities


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Table of Contents

List of illustrations xi

List of tables xvii

List of boxes xviii

About the authors xx

Acknowledgments xxi

Walk-through tour xxiii

Part I The foundations 5 1 Cities as places and spaces 6

Cities as places 9

Exploring further 1.1 11

Identity, community, and security 14

Places as the site of our identity 14

Places as the site of community 15

Places as sites of security 16

Studying the city 1.1 17

Human beings make and remake places 17

Place and space 20

Studying the city 1.2 21

Making the city better 1.1 24

Cities shape the fates of human beings 25

Cities and people 26

2 Social theories of urban space and place: The early perspectives 28

The social and theoretical roots of modern urban theory 29

Studying the city 2.1 31

Ferdinand Toennies: Community and society 32

Georg Simmel: The metropolis and mental life 33

Toennies and Simmel: Further reflections 35

The Chicago School of Sociology 38

The city as social space 39

The city, social change, and social order 40

Studying the city 2.2 42

Life in the city as a way of life 44

Making the city better 2.1 46

Early social theories of urban life 47

3 Social theories of urban space and place: Perspectives in the post-World War II era 49

Theoretical descendents of Marx 50

Manuel Castells and the urban question 50

David Harvey: Injustice and inequality in the city 51

John Logan and Harvey Molotch: The city as a growth machine 53

Making the city better 3.1 54

Making the city better 3.2 56

Further reflections: Marx and the critique of modern cities 57

The return to place and the turn to culture 58

Jane Jacobs and the discovery of community in the modern metropolis 58

Studying the city 3.1 59

Sharon Zukin and the turn to culture 61

Exploring further 3.1 63

Going global: The 1980s and the creation of the global city 66

Evaluating theories of the city 69

4 Methods and rules for the study of cities 72

First rules for doing a social science of cities 74

The rule of validity 74

The rule of reliability 76

Exploring further 4.1 77

Cities and the question of numbers 78

Studying the city 4.1 79

The city as a case study 80

The city as the typical case 82

The city as a prototypical case 85

Ethnographic and historical case studies 87

Ethnographic case studies 87

Studying the city 4.2 89

Historical case studies 90

From one to multiple cases 91

Studying the city 4.3 94

A last but very important rule on doing a good social science of cities: Fitting good theory to good methods 94

And what about insight? 95

Part II The changing metropolis 99 5 The metropolis and its expansion: Early insights and basic principles 100

Metropolitan growth: Basic features 102

The metropolis and its expansion 104

The center of the city 105

The zone of transition 106

The zone of commuters 106

Assessing the concentric zone theory 106

The natural areas of the city 107

Alternative views of the city 107

Studying the city 5.1 108

The mobility of people and groups in the metropolis 109

Social differences and migration in the metropolis 109

Exploring further 5.1? 110

Migration and the expansion of the metropolis 113

The metropolitan center and its links to the hinterlands 115

Human agents and social institutions in the expansion of the metropolis 116

Studying the city 5.2 117

Making the city better 5.1 120

Planning and metropolitan development (new)

Urban growth, institutions, and human agents 121

6 The origins and development of suburbs 123

What is a suburb? Definitions and variations 125

Alternative suburban forms 127

A brief history of suburban development 129

The original suburbs 129

Culture and the demand for suburban living 131

Making the city better 6.1 133

Exploring further 6.1 134

Early suburban diversity 135

Transportation technologies and suburban expansion 136

Making the city better 6.2 139

The role of policy in suburban expansion 140

The mass production of US suburbs 142

Changes and challenges in contemporary suburbs 144

Privatization and gated communities 144

The varied fates of older suburbs 147

Suburbs as places 149

Studying the city 6.1 151

7 Changing metropolitan landscapes after World War II 154

Los Angeles: The prototype of the postwar metropolis 156

Exploring further 7.1 160

The changing metropolitan order 162

The decline of older industrial cities 162

The rise of the postindustrial/postmodern metropolitan regions 163

The importance of transportation, again 164

The remaking of places and spaces: The profound human and political consequences 165

Making the city better 7.1 166

The emerging global economy: A brief overview 168

Studying the city 7.1 171

People, place, and space in a global world 173

Part III The metropolis and social inequalities 177 8 The early metropolis as a place of inequality 178

Colonial cities as unequal places 180

Early urban diversity 182

Cities of immigrants 184

Immigrant lives: New York's Five Points 185

Studying the city 8.1 189

The Five Points case in context 190

Early reform and intervention efforts 193

Making the American ghetto 193

Integrated beginnings 193

Making the city better 8.1 194

New neighbors, new tensions 195

The perpetuation and implications of black ghettos 196

Studying the city 8.2 197

Exploring further 8.1 199

The significance of urban diversity and inequality 201

9 Inequality and diversity in the post-World War II metropolis 204

Inequality and the metropolis 205

Poverty and race 205

Exploring further 9.1 207

Poverty and homelessness 209

Making the city better 9.1 211

Gentrification and the remaking of the metropolis 212

Exploring further 9.2 214

Studying the city 9.1 216

Social diversity and the transformed metropolis 217

The new immigration and the transformation of the metropolis 217

Europe 217

The United States and Canada 219

Reconstructing the contemporary metropolis 221

New ethnic enclaves 221

LGBT neighborhoods 2xx

Studying the city 9.2 224

Other dimensions of urban diversity 226

Making the city better 9.2? 227

The Western metropolis in flux 228

10 Power, authority, and cities as contested spaces States and markets 2xx

The changing global economy 2xx

Exploring further 10.1 (supplied) 2xx

Cities today as contested spaces 2xx

The nature of local governance and politics 2xx

Studying the city 10.1 (Forms of municipal government in the U.S.) 2xx

Local authorities and marginalized peoples 2xx

African-Americans and local authorities 2xx

The homeless and local authorities 2xx

The very poor and local authorities 2xx

Contesting mistreatment by local authorities: Resistance and aid 2xx

Making the city better 10.1 2xx

Major contests over deep meanings and spaces in the metropolis 2xx

Jerusalem: The quintessential contested city 2xx

Diagram here of Jerusalem today 2xx

The contested spaces of Berlin

Pictures of divided Berlin in 1961, and reunified Berlin in 1990 2xx

Photo of Bernstein's Celebration of Reunification in 1989 when he came to Berlin to conduct Beethoven's Ninth Symphony that he renamed "Ode to Freedom")


Part IV The metropolis in the developing world 331 11 Urbanization and cities in developing countries 232

Urbanization: The basic path and its impact on place 233

Developing-country cities in historical perspective 235

Studying the city 11.1 236

The basic dimensions of urbanization 237

Urban hierarchy 237

Urban primacy 239

Over-urbanization versus under-urbanization 239

Studying the city 11.2 241

Natural increase and in-migration 242

From process and system to place 243

A basic profile with multiple wrinkles 243

Megacities as places: Opportunities and challenges 245

Size, density, and diversity 245

Creating wealth and sustaining poverty 246

Exploring further 11.1 250

Making the city better 11.1 251

The developing megacity as a lived place 252

Making the city better 11.2 255

Governing the megacities 255

Studying the city 11.3 256

Reassessing the developing city 258

12 Cities in the global economy 261

Cities in a globalizing world: Theoretical background 262

Emerging cities in the global economy 264

Yiwu, China 264

Rajarhat, India 265

Further Reflections on Yiwu 268

Re-emerging cities in the global economy 269

Berlin, Germany: A once-prosperous, then challenged, and now re-emerging local culture 269

Shanghai, China: Local change in a rising renaissance city 271

Moving more deeply into the global economy 275

Dongguan, china: A place transformed from a rural township into a global factory-city 275

Studying the city 12.1 278

Dubai, United Arab Emirates: From desert to urban miracle to mirage 279

Cities in a fully networked global economy 281

The regional dimension and mediation of cities 281

Becoming globally networked 284

Exploring further 12.1 285

Interdependence between cities and the global economy 287

Studying the city 12.2 288

Systematic constraint and individual flexibility 289

The Global restructuring of cities 290

Making the city better 12.1 291

Part V Challenges of today and the metropolis of the future 295

13 Urban environments and sustainability 296

Making use of nature 297

Natural attributes and urban development 297

Interpreting and manipulating nature 298

Studying the city 13.1 301

Inviting "disaster" 302

Why rebuild? 303

Urban environments 307

Local environmental concerns 308

Making the city better 13.1 308

Environment and inequality 310

Making the city better 13.2 311

Global environmental concerns 312

Urbanization's environmental impacts 313

Cities and climate change 313

Addressing environmental issues: Toward sustainability 315

Exploring further 13.1 317

14 The remaking and future of cities 321

Between place and space: Reinforcing a theoretical vision 322

Remaking cities from above and at critical moments 324

The crisis of Detroit 324

The remaking of Detroit 326

Making the city better 14.1 327

Place-remaking on a larger scale 328

Daily place-remaking from below 330

Remaking neighborhoods and communities 331

The remaking of Brooklyn, New York 331

From Detroit and New York to China and Shanghai - again 332

Remaking cities for the future 334

Scaling up and looking forward 334

Studying the city 14.1 335

The China and India scenarios and their wider implications 336

Cities of the future and the future of cities 340

Making the city better 14.2 341

Exploring further 14.1 346

A final look at the twenty-first-century city 347

Glossary 350

References 358

Index 371

About the Author

Xiangming Chen is the founding Dean and Director of the Center for Urban and Global Studies and Paul Raether Distinguished Professor of Global Urban Studies and Sociology at Trinity College, Hartford, and a guest professor in the School of Social Development and Public Policy at Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Anthony M. Orum is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. He was the founding editor of the journal City & Community. Krista E. Paulsen is Associate Professor of Sociology and Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of North Florida, USA.

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