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Introduction to Electric Circuits
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Electric Circuit Variables 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Electric Circuits and Current 1 1.3 Systems of Units 5 1.4 Voltage 7 1.5 Power and Energy 7 1.6 Circuit Analysis and Design 11 1.7 How Can We Check . . . ? 13 1.8 Design Example-Jet Valve Controller 14 1.9 Summary 15 Problems 15 Design Problems 19 Chapter 2 Circuit Elements 20 2.1 Introduction 20 2.2 Engineering and Linear Models 20 2.3 Active and Passive Circuit Elements 23 2.4 Resistors 25 2.5 Independent Sources 28 2.6 Voltmeters and Ammeters 30 2.7 Dependent Sources 33 2.8 Transducers 37 2.9 Switches 39 2.10 How Can We Check . . . ? 40 2.11 Design Example-Temperature Sensor 42 2.12 Summary 44 Problems 44 Design Problems 52 Chapter 3 Resistive Circuits 53 3.1 Introduction 53 3.2 Kirchhoff's Laws 54 3.3 Series Resistors and Voltage Division 63 3.4 Parallel Resistors and Current Division 68 3.5 Series Voltage Sources and Parallel Current Sources 74 3.6 Circuit Analysis 77 3.7 Analyzing Resistive Circuits Using MATLAB 82 3.8 How Can We Check . . . ? 86 3.9 Design Example-Adjustable Voltage Source 88 3.10 Summary 91 Problems 92 Design Problems 112 Chapter 4 Methods of Analysis of Resistive Circuits 114 4.1 Introduction 114 4.2 Node Voltage Analysis of Circuits with Current Sources 115 4.3 Node Voltage Analysis of Circuits with Current and Voltage Sources 121 4.4 Node Voltage Analysis with Dependent Sources 126 4.5 Mesh Current Analysis with Independent Voltage Sources 128 4.6 Mesh Current Analysis with Current and Voltage Sources 133 4.7 Mesh Current Analysis with Dependent Sources 137 4.8 The Node Voltage Method and Mesh Current Method Compared 139 4.9 Circuit Analysis Using MATLAB 142 4.10 Using PSpice to Determine Node Voltages and Mesh Currents 144 4.11 How Can We Check . . . ? 146 4.12 Design Example-Potentiometer Angle Display 149 4.13 Summary 152 Problems 153 PSpice Problems 167 Design Problems 167 Chapter 5 Circuit Theorems 169 5.1 Introduction 169 5.2 Source Transformations 169 5.3 Superposition 176 5.4 Thevenin's Theorem 180 5.5 Norton's Equivalent Circuit 187 5.6 Maximum Power Transfer 191 5.7 Using MATLAB to Determine the Thevenin Equivalent Circuit 194 5.8 Using PSpice to Determine the Thevenin Equivalent Circuit 197 5.9 How Can We Check . . . ? 200 5.10 Design Example-Strain Gauge Bridge 201 5.11 Summary 203 Problems 204 PSpice Problems 216 Design Problems 217 Chapter 6 The Operational Amplifier 219 6.1 Introduction 219 6.2 The Operational Amplifier 219 6.3 The Ideal Operational Amplifier 221 6.4 Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal Operational Amplifiers 223 6.5 Design Using Operational Amplifiers 228 6.6 Operational Amplifier Circuits and Linear Algebraic Equations 233 6.7 Characteristics of Practical Operational Amplifiers 238 6.8 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Using MATLAB 245 6.9 Using PSpice to Analyze Op Amp Circuits 247 6.10 How Can We Check . . . ? 248 6.11 Design Example-Transducer Interface Circuit 250 6.12 Summary 252 Problems 253 PSpice Problems 265 Design Problems 267 Chapter 7 Energy Storage Elements 268 7.1 Introduction 268 7.2 Capacitors 269 7.3 Energy Storage in a Capacitor 275 7.4 Series and Parallel Capacitors 278 7.5 Inductors 280 7.6 Energy Storage in an Inductor 285 7.7 Series and Parallel Inductors 287 7.8 Initial Conditions of Switched Circuits 288 7.9 Operational Amplifier Circuits and Linear Differential Equations 292 7.10 Using MATLAB to Plot Capacitor or Inductor Voltage and Current 298 7.11 How Can We Check . . . ? 300 7.12 Design Example-Integrator and Switch 301 7.13 Summary 304 Problems 305 Design Problems 321 Chapter 8 The Complete Response of RL and RC Circuits 322 8.1 Introduction 322 8.2 First-Order Circuits 322 8.3 The Response of a First-Order Circuit to a Constant Input 325 8.4 Sequential Switching 338 8.5 Stability of First-Order Circuits 340 8.6 The Unit Step Source 342 8.7 The Response of a First-Order Circuit to a Nonconstant Source 346 8.8 Differential Operators 351 8.9 Using PSpice to Analyze First-Order Circuits 352 8.10 How Can We Check . . . ? 355 8.11 Design Example-A Computer and Printer 359 8.12 Summary 362 Problems 363 PSpice Problems 374 Design Problems 375 Chapter 9 The Complete Response of Circuits with Two Energy Storage Elements 378 9.1 Introduction 378 9.2 Differential Equation for Circuits with Two Energy Storage Elements 379 9.3 Solution of the Second-Order Differential Equation-The Natural Response 383 9.4 Natural Response of the Unforced Parallel RLC Circuit 386 9.5 Natural Response of the Critically Damped Unforced Parallel RLC Circuit 389 9.6 Natural Response of an Underdamped Unforced Parallel RLC Circuit 390 9.7 Forced Response of an RLC Circuit 392 9.8 Complete Response of an RLC Circuit 396 9.9 State Variable Approach to Circuit Analysis 399 9.10 Roots in the Complex Plane 403 9.11 How Can We Check . . . ? 404 9.12 Design Example-Auto Airbag Igniter 407 9.13 Summary 409 Problems 411 PSpice Problems 422 Design Problems 423 Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis 425 10.1 Introduction 425 10.2 Sinusoidal Sources 426 10.3 Phasors and Sinusoids 430 10.4 Impedances 435 10.5 Series and Parallel Impedances 440 10.6 Mesh and Node Equations 447 10.7 Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 454 10.8 Superposition 459 10.9 Phasor Diagrams 461 10.10 Op Amps in AC Circuits 463 10.11 The Complete Response 465 10.12 Using MATLAB to Analyze AC Circuits 472 10.13 Using PSpice to Analyze AC Circuits 474 10.14 How Can We Check . . . ? 476 10.15 Design Example-An Op Amp Circuit 479 10.16 Summary 481 Problems 482 PSpice Problems 502 Design Problems 503 Chapter 11 AC Steady-State Power 504 11.1 Introduction 504 11.2 Electric Power 504 11.3 Instantaneous Power and Average Power 505 11.4 Effective Value of a Periodic Waveform 509 11.5 Complex Power 512 11.6 Power Factor 519 11.7 The Power Superposition Principle 527 11.8 The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 530 11.9 Coupled Inductors 531 11.10 The Ideal Transformer 539 11.11 How Can We Check . . . ? 546 11.12 Design Example-Maximum Power Transfer 547 11.13 Summary 549 Problems 551 PSpice Problems 566 Design Problems 567 Chapter 12 Three-Phase Circuits 568 12.1 Introduction 568 12.2 Three-Phase Voltages 569 12.3 The Y-to-Y Circuit 572 12.4 The ?-Connected Source and Load 581 12.5 The Y-to-? Circuit 583 12.6 Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 586 12.7 Instantaneous and Average Power in a Balanced Three-Phase Load 588 12.8 Two-Wattmeter Power Measurement 591 12.9 How Can We Check . . . ? 594 12.10 Design Example-Power Factor Correction 597 12.11 Summary 598 Problems 599 PSpice Problems 602 Design Problems 603 Chapter 13 Frequency Response 604 13.1 Introduction 604 13.2 Gain, Phase Shift, and the Network Function 604 13.3 Bode Plots 616 13.4 Resonant Circuits 633 13.5 Frequency Response of Op Amp Circuits 640 13.6 Plotting Bode Plots Using MATLAB 642 13.7 Using PSpice to Plot a Frequency Response 644 13.8 How Can We Check . . . ? 646 13.9 Design Example-Radio Tuner 650 13.10 Summary 652 Problems 653 PSpice Problems 666 Design Problems 668 Chapter 14 The Laplace Transform 670 14.1 Introduction 670 14.2 Laplace Transform 671 14.3 Pulse Inputs 677 14.4 Inverse Laplace Transform 680 14.5 Initial and Final Value Theorems 687 14.6 Solution of Differential Equations Describing a Circuit 689 14.7 Circuit Analysis Using Impedance and Initial Conditions 690 14.8 Transfer Function and Impedance 700 14.9 Convolution 706 14.10 Stability 710 14.11 Partial Fraction Expansion Using MATLAB 713 14.12 How Can We Check . . . ? 718 14.13 Design Example-Space Shuttle Cargo Door 720 14.14 Summary 723 Problems 724 PSpice Problems 738 Design Problems 739 Chapter 15 Fourier Series and Fourier Transform 741 15.1 Introduction 741 15.2 The Fourier Series 741 15.3 Symmetry of the Function f (t) 750 15.4 Fourier Series of Selected Waveforms 755 15.5 Exponential Form of the Fourier Series 757 15.6 The Fourier Spectrum 765 15.7 Circuits and Fourier Series 769 15.8 Using PSpice to Determine the Fourier Series 772 15.9 The Fourier Transform 777 15.10 Fourier Transform Properties 780 15.11 The Spectrum of Signals 784 15.12 Convolution and Circuit Response 785 15.13 The Fourier Transform and the Laplace Transform 788 15.14 How Can We Check . . . ? 790 15.15 Design Example-DC Power Supply 792 15.16 Summary 795 Problems 796 PSpice Problems 802 Design Problems 802 Chapter 16 Filter Circuits 804 16.1 Introduction 804 16.2 The Electric Filter 804 16.3 Filters 805 16.4 Second-Order Filters 808 16.5 High-Order Filters 816 16.6 Simulating Filter Circuits Using PSpice 822 16.7 How Can We Check . . . ? 826 16.8 Design Example-Anti-Aliasing Filter 828 16.9 Summary 831 Problems 831 PSpice Problems 836 Design Problems 839 Chapter 17 Two-Port and Three-Port Networks 840 17.1 Introduction 840 17.2 T-to- Transformation and Two-Port Three-Terminal Networks 841 17.3 Equations of Two-Port Networks 843 17.4 Z and Y Parameters for a Circuit with Dependent Sources 846 17.5 Hybrid and Transmission Parameters 848 17.6 Relationships Between Two-Port Parameters 850 17.7 Interconnection of Two-Port Networks 852 17.8 How Can We Check . . . ? 855 17.9 Design Example-Transistor Amplifier 857 17.10 Summary 859 Problems 859 Design Problems 863 Appendix A Getting Started with PSpice 865 Appendix B MATLAB, Matrices, and Complex Arithmetic 873 Appendix C Mathematical Formulas 885 Appendix D Standard Resistor Color Code 889 References 891 Index 893

About the Author

James A. Svoboda is an associate professor of electrical and computer engineering at Clarkson University where he teaches courses on topics such as circuits electronics, and computer programming. He earned a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and M.S. from the University of Colorado, and a B. S. from General Motors Institute. Sophomore Circuits is one of Professor Svoboda's favorite courses. He has taught this course to 2500 undergraduates at Clarkson University over the past 21 years. In 1996, he received Clarkson University's Distinguished Teaching Award. Professor Svoboda has written several research papers describing the advantages of using nullors to model electric circuits for computer analysis. He is interested in the way technology affects engineering education and has developed several software packages for use in Sophomore Circuits. Richard C. Dorf professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of California, Davis, teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in electrical engineering in the fields of circuits and control systems. He earned a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, an M.S. from the University of Colorado and a B.S. from Clarkson University. Highly concerned with the discipline of electrical engineering and its wide value to social and economic needs, he has written and lectured internationally on the contributions and advances in electrical engineering. Professor Dorf has extensive experience with education and industry and its professionally active in the fields of robotics, automation, electric circuits, and communications. He has served as a visiting professor at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland; The Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Stanford University; of California, Berkeley. A Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Dr. Dorf is widely known to the profession for his Modern Control Systems, Eighth Edition (Addison-Wesley, 1998) and The International Encyclopedia of Robotics (Wiley 1988). Dr. Dorf is also the coauthor of Circuits, Devices and Systems (with Ralph Smith), Fifth Edition (Wiley, 1992). Dr. Dorf edited the widely used Electrical Engineering Handbook, Second Edition (CRC Press and IEEE Press) published in 1997.

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