1 Probability, Distributions, and Equilibrium
2 The Distribution of Energy
3 Energy Levels in Real Chemical Systems
4 Internal Energy (U) and the First Law
5 Bonding and Internal Energy
6 The Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium
7 Entropy (S) and the Second Law
8 The Effect of Pressure and Concentration on Entropy
9 Enthalpy (H) and the Surroundings
10 Gibbs Energy (G)
11 The Equilibrium Constant (K)
12 Applications of Gibbs Energy: Phase Changes
13 Applications of Gibbs Energy: Electrochemistry
APPENDIX A Symbols and Constants APPENDIX B Mathematical Tricks APPENDIX C Table of Standard Reduction Potentials APPENDIX D Table of Standard Thermodynamic Data (25 DegreesC and 1 bar) APPENDIX E Thermodynamic Data for the Evaporation of Liquid Water
Answers to Selected Exercises
ROBERT HANSON is a Professor of Chemistry at St. Olaf College, in
Northfield, Minnesota, USA, where he has been teaching since 1986.
Trained as an organic chemist with Gilbert Stork at Columbia
University, USA, he shares a patent with 2001 Nobel Prize winner
K.Barry Sharpless for the asymmetric epoxidation of allylic
alcohols. His interest in thermodynamics goes back to early
training at the California Institute of Technology, from which he
got a B.S. degree in 1979.
SUSAN GREEN has had the privilege of being both a student and a professor at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota, USA, where she was first introduced to the idea of teaching thermodynamics to first-year students. She trained as a physical chemist at the University of Minnesota, USA, studying the vibrational and electronic structure of small metal oxides as well as trying her hand at analytical chemistry.