Recent research on characterizing iron ores, including beneficiation, agglomeration, blast furnace smelting technology, and environmental issues relating to iron ore production
List of Contributors Preface 1: Introduction: overview of the global iron ore industry Abstract 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Iron ore mining operations by country 1.3 Technology status and challenges 1.4 Iron ore outlook Part One: Characterization and analysis of iron ore 2: Mineralogical, chemical, and physical characteristics of iron ore Abstract 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Mineralogy 2.3 Chemical composition 2.4 Physical properties 2.5 Future trends 3: XRD analysis and evaluation of iron ores and sinters Abstract 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Principles of powder X-ray diffraction 3.3 Rietveld analysis 3.4 Sources of error in XRD analysis 3.5 Applications of cluster analysis 3.6 Applicability of XRD analysis 3.7 Use of mass balancing in iron ore analysis 3.8 The principal minerals and phases 3.9 XRD for the characterization of Iron ores 3.10 XRD in sintering and pelletizing 3.11 Summary and conclusions 4: Automated optical image analysis of natural and sintered iron ore Abstract 4.1 Introduction: Overview of optical image analysis technique 4.2 Mineralogical characteristics of iron ore and sinter 4.3 Automated optical image analysis (OIA) 4.4 Application of automated OIA to natural and sintered iron ore 5: Quantitative analysis of iron ore using SEM-based technologies Abstract 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Principles of SEM-based technologies 5.3 Application of automated SEM-based technologies to ore characterization 5.4 Characterization of natural and sintered iron ore using QEMSCAN 5.5 Summary 5.6 Future trends 6: Characterization of iron ore by visible and infrared reflectance and, Raman spectroscopies Abstract 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Principles of reflectance and Raman spectroscopies 6.3 Technologies 6.4 Reflectance and Raman spectroscopies of iron ore minerals 6.5 Future trends Part Two: Extraction, comminution, separation, and beneficiation of iron ore 7: Iron ore extraction techniques Abstract 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Iron ore mining-an historical UK context 7.3 Underground iron ore mining: Kiruna, Sweden 7.4 Modern-day surface mining: the Pilbara deposit 7.5 Modern day surface mining: iron ore in Minas Gerais Province, Brazil 7.6 Conclusions 8: Developments in iron ore comminution and classification technologies Abstract 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Iron ore crushing and screening 8.3 Iron ore grinding and classification 8.4 Future trends in iron ore comminution and classification 9: Developments in the physical separation of iron ore: magnetic separation Abstract 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Principle of magnetic separation 9.3 Magnetic separators 9.4 Typical flow sheets for iron ore separation 9.5 Challenges and recent advances in magnetic separation 9.6 Summary 10: Developments in nonmagnetic physical separation technologies for hematitic/goethitic iron ore Abstract 10.1 Physical processing for enhanced chemical and/or physical properties 10.2 Dense medium separation 10.3 Jigging 10.4 Upflow classification 10.5 Spiraling for iron ore beneficiation 11: Developments in the physiochemical separation of iron ore Abstract 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Mineral properties 11.3 Iron ore flotation 11.4 Key challenges and future directions 12: Developments in chemical separation of iron ore Abstract 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Phosphorus removal 12.3 Removal of silicon, aluminum, and sulfur minerals 12.4 Summary and future trends 13: Application of biotechnology in iron ore beneficiation Abstract Acknowledgments 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Microbial adhesion to mineral surfaces 13.3 Bioleaching for phosphorus removal from iron ores 13.4 Biobeneficiation of sulfide ores 13.5 Biobeneficiation of iron ore 13.6 Future trends Part Three: Iron ore agglomeration processes and blast furnace iron-making technology 14: Iron ore sintering Abstract Acknowledgments 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Effect of iron ore characteristics on sintering 14.3 Evaluation of iron ore for the sintering process 14.4 Recent developments in iron ore sintering 14.5 Conclusions 15: Iron ore pelletization Abstract 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Specification requirements of pellet feed 15.3 Green ball formation and properties 15.4 Induration of green pellets 15.5 Quality requirements for fired pellets 15.6 Conclusions 16: Quality requirements of iron ore for iron production Abstract Acknowledgments 16.1 Introduction to ironmaking technologies 16.2 Quality requirements of iron ore for the BF ironmaking process 16.3 Quality requirements of iron ore for alternative ironmaking processes 16.4 Summary 17: Recent developments in blast furnace iron-making technology Abstract 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Blast furnace design and facilities 17.3 Blast furnace process 17.4 Key innovations and future trends Part Four: Environmental issues and low emission technologies 18: Sintering emissions and their mitigation technologies Abstract 18.1 Introduction 18.2 CO2 emissions and their mitigation 18.3 SOx emissions and their mitigation 18.4 NOx emissions and their mitigation technologies 18.5 Dioxin emissions and their mitigation 18.6 Dust emissions and their reduction 18.7 Utilization of biomass materials in iron ore sintering 18.8 Conclusions 19: Utilization of biomass as an alternative fuel in ironmaking Abstract 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Potential applications of biomass-derived materials and impact on net GHG emissions 19.3 Physical and chemical properties of biomass-derived chars to optimize ironmaking operations 19.4 Economic sources of biomass fuel 19.5 Pyrolysis of biomass for ironmaking applications 19.6 Applications in ironmaking 19.7 Future trends 19.8 Sources of further information and advice 20: Life cycle assessment of iron ore mining and processing Abstract 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Iron ore mining and processing 20.3 Application of LCA to iron ore mining and processing 20.4 Using LCA to reduce energy and GHG impacts 20.5 Conclusions 20.6 Sources of further information and advice Index
Dr Liming Lu is currently a Senior Principal Scientist leading CSIRO research and development in iron ore agglomeration and high temperature behaviour of resultant agglomerates during the blast furnace and other alternative ironmaking processes. Liming has more than 28 years R and D experience in the characterisation, processing and evaluation of iron ores, metallurgical coals and molten alloys. He has published 10 book chapters and more than 130 papers including 6 invited review. He is a Technical Expert of ISO Technical Committee TC102/SC3, which is reviewing and developing international standards for the physical testing of iron ore. Liming has served as a Key Reader for Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, a member of the Editorial Board for Ironmaking and Steelmaking and a member of the Advisory Board of ISIJ International. Liming was the recipient of Josef S Kapitan Award from American Iron and Steel Society in 2003 and Sawamura Award from the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan in 2018. He was appointed as an Adjunct Professor by Central South University, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Liaoning University of Science and Technology and Shanghai University in China.