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Isotopes of the Earth's Hydrosphere
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Table of Contents

Preface

Part I Stable Isotopes

1 Introduction

2 Isotope Geochemistry of Natural Waters
2.1 Some Properties ofWaters and Solutions
2.1.1 The Notion of Activity and the Activity Coefficient
2.1.2 The Relationship between Solvent and Solute Activity
2.2 Water Vapor Pressure over theWater and Solution
2.3 Physicochemical Foundations of Isotope Separation
2.4 Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Separation at Phase Transition of Water
2.5 Relationship Between the Isotope Reaction Change Constant and the Fractionation Factor
2.6 Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Fractionation at Interaction BetweenWater and Gases and Rocks
2.7 Isotope Geothermometry

3 Isotopic Composition of OceanWater
3.1 Distribution of Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes and Water Dynamics
3.2 Effect of Evaporation and VerticalWater Exchange
3.3 Dynamics of the OceanWater
3.4 Isotopic Composition of OceanWater in the Past

4 Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Moisture
4.1 Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Fractionation in the Hydrological Cycle
4.2 Isotopic Balance in the Global Hydrologic Cycle at Evaporation and Condensation of Water
4.3 Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Water in the Past

5 Isotopic Composition of Surface Continental Waters
5.1 Isotopic Balance of the Continental Waters
5.2 Isotopic Composition of the River and Lake Water
5.3 Isotopic Composition of Water in Evaporating Basins

6 Isotopic Composition ofWater in the Unsaturated and Saturated Zones
6.1 Relationship between Surface and Ground Water
6.2 Groundwater Recharge at Present Time
6.3 Groundwater Recharge in the Past
6.4 Identification of Area of Groundwater Recharge
6.5 Relationship between Aquifers
6.6 Mixing Proportions of Groundwater of Different Genesis
6.7 Groundwater Residence Time in an Aquifer
6.8 Relationship ofWaters in Conjugate Hydrologic Basins

7 Isotopic Composition of FormationWaters
7.1 Relationship Between Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes in FormationWaters
7.2 Isotopic Composition of FormationWater in Sedimentary Basins

8 Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Sedimentary Rocks of Marine Genesis and Implications for Paleothermometry
8.1 Isotopic Composition of Sediments and PoreWater
8.2 Paleothermometry Based on the Isotopic Composition of Cherts
8.3 Paleothermometry Based on the Isotopic Composition of Carbonate Rocks
8.4 Isotopic Composition of Evaporates

9 Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Groundwater in Volcanic Regions
9.1 Use of Isotopes in Studying the Origin of Thermal Water
9.2 Isotopic Geothermometers

10 Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Minerals of Magmatic and Metamorphic Rocks and Fluid Inclusions
10.1 Role ofWater in Hydrothermal Alteration of the Rocks and Minerals
10.2 MeteoricWater in the Processes of Hydrothermal Formation of Minerals

Part II Cosmogenic Radioisotopes

11 Other Stable Isotopes in the Hydrosphere
11.1 Stable Isotopes of Carbon
11.2 Stable Isotopes of Sulfur

12 Origin and Production of Cosmogenic Radioisotopes
12.1 Composition of Cosmic Radiation in the Earth's Atmosphere 12.2 Composition and Steady-state Abundances of Cosmogenic Radioisotopes in the Outer Shells of the Earth
12.3 Distribution of Cosmogenic Radioisotopes in the Exchange Reservoirs

13 Tritium in Natural Waters
13.1 Properties of Tritium and Sources of Its Occurrence
13.2 Global Circulation of Tritium Water

14 Radiocarbon in Natural Waters
14.1 Origin and Distribution of Radiocarbon in the Nature
14.2 Natural Variations of Radiocarbon in the Atmosphere and Biosphere
14.3 Natural Radiocarbon in the Oceans
14.4 Technogenic Radiocarbon in the Atmosphere and Oceans
14.5 Forecast of Carbon Dioxide Increase in the Atmosphere
14.6 Principles of Radiocarbon Dating
14.7 Radiocarbon Dating of Groundwater
14.8 Formation of Chemical and Isotonic Composition of Groundwater's Carbonate System
14.9 Corrections in Groundwater Dating by Radiocarbon

Part III Radiogenic Isotopes

15 The Other Cosmogenic Isotopes in Natural Waters
15.1 Origin of Other Cosmogenic Radioisotopes in the Atmosphere 15.2 Distribution of Other Cosmogenic Isotopes in the Hydrosphere
15.3 Use of Radioisotopes as Tracers in the Hydrological Cycle

16 Production and Distribution of Radiogenic Isotopes
16.1 Geochemistry of Radiogenic Elements
16.2 Separation of Radiogenic Elements and Isotopes
16.3 Distribution of Radiogenic Elements in NaturalWaters

Part IV Applications

17 Dating of SurfaceWater, Groundwater, and Sediments
17.1 Dating of Closed Reservoirs
17.2 Dating of Groundwater
17.3 Dating of Sediments
17.4 Isotopes of Radiogenic Elements as Indicators of Hydrologic Processes

18 Applications to the Problems of Dynamics of Natural Waters
18.1 Dynamics of Moisture in the Atmosphere
18.2 Mixing of River and SeaWaters in Estuaries
18.3 Water Exchange in the River Basins, Lakes, and Reservoirs
18.4 Water Dynamics in Unsaturated and Saturated Zone
18.5 Recharge and Discharge of Groundwater
18.6 Relationship of Aquifers
18.7 Separation of RechargedWater of Different Genesis in Mining
18.8 Determination of Radiocarbon Age of Groundwater
18.9 Determination of Flow Velocity and Direction in Regional Scale
18.10 Paleoclimatic and Paleohydrogeologic Studies

19 Paleohydrology of the Aral-Caspian Basin
19.1 Formulation of the Problem
19.2 General Description of Study in the Caspian Sea
19.3 Interpretation of Paleoclimatic Events
19.4 Study ofWater Regime in the Aral Sea
19.5 Interpretation of Bottom Sediments
19.6 Results and Conclusions

20 The Nature and Mechanism of the Earth Shell Separation and Origin of Hydrosphere
20.1 Existing Approaches to the Problem Solution
20.2 Separation of Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes in Natural Objects
20.3 Evidence from Carbon and Sulfur Isotopes
20.4 Chemical Differentiation of Proto-Planetary Substance
20.5 Recent Results of Study of the Earth Gravitational Field by the Satellites
20.6 The Nature and Mechanism of the Earth Shell Separation
20.7 Physical Meaning of Archimedes' and Coriolis' Forces
20.8 Self-Similarity Principle and Radial Component of Nonuniform Sphere
20.9 Charges-like Motion of Nonuniformities and Tangential Component of the Force Function
20.10 Differentiation of the Substances with Respect to Density and Condition for the Planet and the Satellite Separation
20.11 The Third Kepler's Law as a Kinematics Basis for the Solar System Bodies Creation Problem Solution
20.12 Conclusion

References

Index

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