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Kidnay, A
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Table of Contents

Processing Principles
Introduction
Units and Conversions
Basic Chemistry Concepts
Specification Test Methods
Thermodynamics

Pumps
Introduction
Pump Fundamentals
Centrifugal Pumps
Reciprocating Pumps
Rotary Pumps
Pump Comparisons

Heat Transfer
Introduction
Modes of Heat Transfer
Cooling and Heating Sources
Heat Exchanger Types
Reboilers

Separation Processes
Introduction
Distillation
Absorption
Column Internals
Adsorption
Membranes

Phase Separation Equipment
Gas–Liquid Separators
Filter Separators and Coalescing Filters
Cyclone Separators
Liquid–Liquid Separators
Residence Time for Various Separator Applications
Filters

Overview of the Natural Gas Industry
Introduction
Sources of Natural Gas
Composition of Natural Gas
Classification
Principal Products and Markets
Product Specifications
Combustion Characteristics

Overview of Gas Plant Processing
Roles of Gas Plants
Plant Processes
Important Support Components
Contractual Agreements and Economics
Operational Measures

Field Operations and Inlet Receiving
Introduction
Field Operations
Gas Hydrates
Inlet Receiving
Safety and Environmental Considerations

Compression
Introduction
Fundamentals
Drivers
Compressor Types
Capacity and Power Calculations
Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors
Safety and Environmental Considerations

Gas Treating
Introduction
Solvent Absorption Processes
Physical Absorption
Adsorption
Cryogenic Fractionation
Membranes
Nonregenerable Hydrogen Sulfide Scavengers
Biological Processes
Safety and Environmental Considerations

Gas Dehydration
Introduction
Water Content of Hydrocarbons
Gas Dehydration Processes
Safety and Environmental Considerations

Hydrocarbon Recovery
Introduction
Process Components
Liquids Removal Processes
Safety and Environmental Considerations

Nitrogen Rejection
Introduction
Nitrogen Rejection for Gas Upgrading
Nitrogen Rejection for Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Cryogenic Distillation
Safety and Environmental Considerations

Trace Component Recovery or Removal
Introduction
Helium
Mercury
Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes

Liquids Processing
Introduction
Condensate Processing
NGL Processing
Safety and Environmental Considerations

Acid Gas Processing and Disposal
Introduction
Properties of Sulfur
Sulfur Recovery Processes
Sulfur Storage
Acid Gas Disposal
Safety and Environmental Considerations

Transportation and Storage
Introduction
Gas
Liquids

Liquefied Natural Gas
Introduction
Gas Treating before Liquefaction
Liquefaction Cycles
Storage of LNG
Transportation
Regasification and Cold Utilization of LNG
Economics
Safety and Environmental Considerations

Capital Costs of Gas Processing Facilities
Introduction
Basic Premises for All Plant Component Cost Data
Amine Treating
Glycol Dehydration
NGL Recovery with Straight Refrigeration (Low Ethane Recovery)
NGL Recovery with Cryogenic Processing (High Ethane Recovery) and Nitrogen Rejection
Sulfur Recovery and Tail Gas Cleanup
NGL Extraction Plant Costs for Larger Facilities
Corrections to Cost Data

Natural Gas Processing Plants
Introduction
Plant with Sweet Gas Feed and 98% Ethane Recovery
Plant with Sour Gas Feed, NGL, and Sulfur Recovery
Plant with Sour Gas Feed, NGL Recovery, and Nitrogen Rejection

Appendix A: Glossary of Gas Process Terminology
Appendix B: Physical Constants and Physical Properties

Author Index
Subject Index

Discussion Questions, Exercises, References, and Web Sites appear at the end of most chapters.

About the Author

Arthur J. Kidnay, PhD, PE, is a professor emeritus in the chemical engineering department at the Colorado School of Mines. He has taught and conducted extensive research in the fields of vapor--liquid equilibria, physical adsorption, and heat transfer. A fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Dr. Kidnay has served on the Colorado Board of Registration for Professional Engineers, has been a NATO senior science fellow at Oxford University, and has been a recipient of the Russell B. Scott Memorial Award at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference. William R. Parrish, PhD, PE, is a retired senior research associate with ConocoPhillips, where he obtained physical properties data needed for new processes and for resolving operation problems. He provided company-wide technical expertise on matters involving physical properties and gas hydrates and participated on six gas plant optimization teams. A fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Dr. Parrish remains actively involved in the development of examinations for professional engineers. Daniel G. McCartney, PE, provides technical expertise for gas processing, LNG, and sulfur projects at a global engineering, construction, and consulting company. Previously, he worked for over 25 years at Warren Petroleum and Chevron. Mr. McCartney is chair of the Technical Data Development subgroup in the Gas Processors Association and a senior advisory board member for the Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference.

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