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Landslides are a constant in shaping our landscape. Whether by large episodic, or smaller chronic, mass movements, our mountains, hills, valleys, rivers, and streams bear evidence of change from landslides. Combined with anthropogenic factors, especially the development and settlement of unstable terrain, landslides (as natural processes) have become natural disasters. This book charts our understanding of landslide processes, prediction methods, and related land use issues. How and where do landslides initiate? What are the human and economic consequences? What hazard assessment and prediction methods are available, and how well do they work? How does land use, from timber harvesting and road building to urban and industrial development, affect landslide distribution in time and space? And what is the effect of land use and climate change on landslides? This book responds to such questions with: * Synopses of how various land uses and management activities influence landslide behavior * Analyses of earth surface processes that affect landslide frequency and extent * Examples of prediction techniques and methods of landslide hazard assessment, including scales of application * Discussion of landslide types and related costs and damages Those who study landslides, and those who deal with landslides, from onset to after-effects--including researchers, engineers, land managers, educators, students, and policy makers--will find this work a benchmark reference, now and for years to come.
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Table of Contents

Preface vii 1. Introduction and Overview of Landslide Problems 1 Overall Significance of Landslides 2 Distribution of Landslide Hazards Worldwide 9 Loss of Human Life 10 Economic Consequences 13 Examples of Detailed Economic Analyses of Landslide Damages 15 Other Environmental Impacts 20 2. Characteristics of Various Types of Landslides 23 Classification Systems 23 Broad Functional Categorization of Mass Wasting Processes 24 3. Natural Factors Influencing Landslides 41 Geological Factors 41 Geomorphic Factors 55 Hydrologic Factors 67 Seismicity 110 Volcanic Activity 117 4. Landslide Analysis 121 Analysis of Stresses Within Slopes and Initiation Mechanisms of Landslides 121 Quantifying Landslide Trigger Mechanisms 124 Primary Causes of Landslides 129 Problems in Applying Theoretical Stability Analysis to Natural Hillslopes 134 Hazard Assessment and Prediction Methods 139 Overview of Techniques and Methodologies 139 Terrain Hazard Mapping 139 Simple Rainfall-Landslide and Earthquake-Landslide Relationships 145 Multi-Factor, Empirical Landslide Hazard Assessment 150 Distributed, Physically Based Models 155 Overview of Landslide Hazard Assessment and Prediction Methods 160 Land Use and Global Change 163 Timber Harvesting 163 Roads and Other Transportation Corridors 183 Conversion of Forests to Agricultural Lands and Plantations 203 Management Effects 203 Control and Avoidance Practices Amidst the Politics 206 Steepland Grazing and Grasslands 209 Management Effects 209 Avoidance and Control Practices 211 Fire 213 Management Effects 213 Avoidance and Control Practices 216 Urban, Residential, and Industrial Development 217 Background and Vulnerability 217 Direct Effects 219 Avoidance and Mitigation Measures 223 Urban planning and regulation 224 Control and mitigation measures 229 Mining 230 Tourism and Recreation 235 Global Climate Change 236 7. Summary 239 Notation 243 References 247 Index 307

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