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Language Signs and Calming Signals of Horses
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Table of Contents

1 THE DISCOVERY OF A LANGUAGE
1.1 Communication signal or not?
1.2 It all starts with a stimulus and a reaction 2 CALMING SIGNALS TO APPEASE AND CALM
2.1 What are calming signals?
2.2 Communication ladder calming signals
2.3 Body posture
2.4 Facial features & Tail carriage
2.5 Blinking
2.6 Half closing the eyes
2.7 Looking away
2.8 Chewing
2.9 Tongue-out chewing
2.10 Yawning & a Jaw stretch
2.11 Head turn
2.12 Neck turn
2.13 Neck Shake
2.14 Body shake
2.15 Lowering of the head and neck
2.16 Curving
2.17 Splitting
2.18 Showing the hindquarters
2.19 Showing the flanks
2.20 Eating
2.21 Immobility and slowing down
2.22 Summary Calming signals
2.23 Displacement Behaviour and Calming Signals Alternate
2.24 Communication ladder Displacement behaviour
2.25 Faces and behaviours
2.26 Displacement activities
2.27 Rolling
2.28 Head Swing
2.29 Example series
2.30 Summary Displacement behaviour 3 TENSION SHIMMERS THROUGH CALMING SIGNALS
3.1 Tension rises due to increasing stimulus intensity
3.2 Communication ladder Stress signals
3.3 Body posture and facial features
3.4 Clenched lips and different shaped lip and nose
3.5 More frequent defecation and urination
3.6 Rushing: eating, drinking and moving
3.7 Example of behaviour sequence
3.8 Tension leads to creation of distance
3.9 Communication ladder Distance increasing signals
3.10 Chasing away
3.11 Bite Threat
3.12 Threatening to kick
3.13 Bucking
3.14 The arched neck
3.15 Posturing behaviour
3.16 Flight signals
3.17 Example of a behaviour sequence
3.18 Fight or Flight
3.19 Communication ladder Fight/Flight
3.20 Recovery after mounting tension and shocks
3.21 Communication ladder Recovery after tension and shocks
3.22 Summary Rising tension and recovery 4 NO COMMUNICATION
4.1 Just not that interested
4.2 Communication ladder No communication signals
4.3 Withdrawal and stereotyped behaviour
4.4 Communication ladder Withdrawal
4.5 Summary No communication 5 APPLICATION OF CALMING SIGNALS: HOW DO WE HELP THE HORSE?
5.1 Communication ladder as an assessment tool
5.2 Planning and management
5.3 Creating relaxation opportunities
5.4 Do not leave your horse alone & use the hand signal
5.5 Using calming signals yourself
5.6 Splitting
5.7 Curving in an arc
5.8 Showing the flank or back
5.9 Standing still
5.10 Making your horse more independent: empower your horse
5.11 Chapter summary: tips APPENDIX
1.1 Eyes
1.2 Ears
1.3 Notes
1.4 Bibliography of personal favourites

About the Author

Rachael graduated from the University in Nijmegen. She has always lived with and had a passion for dogs and horses. 15 years ago she decided to make it her profession. She achieved several diplomas and started working as trainer and behaviourist. First only with dogs and later also with horses. In 2013 she completed the TR (Turid Rugaas) International Dog Trainers Education. Under supervision of Turid Rugaas she started he study of calming signals of horses. Rachael started filming domestic horses and analysing film material. The study grew and lead to a complete work shift from dogs to only horses. Rachael also developed a (re)socialisation program for horses and nose work and games for horses. Rachael travels (inter) nationally to give lectures. She dedicates her time to the ongoing study of language signs of horses.

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