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Large White Butterfly


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Table of Contents

1. Nomenclature.- Section A. Classification of Pieris brassicae.- - Classification and derivation of P. brassicae.- - Generic names and classification.- - Common names.- - P. brassicae and its subspecies.- Section B. Infrasubspecific variation and nomenclature.- - Aberrations.- - Some major aberrations.- - Un-named aberrations.- - Other aberrations of note.- - Seasonal variation.- References cited.- Further references.- 2. Distribution.- - Introduction.- - World range (Europe, Middle East, North Africa, Indian subcontinent, U.S.S.R., Far East, Australia and New Zealand, South America).- References cited.- Further references.- 3. Life history.- - Original descriptions.- - Life cycle.- - Eclosion.- - Courtship.- - Copulation.- - Roosting site.- - Voltinism.- - Abundance.- - Natural checks of populations.- - Intraspecific relationships.- References cited.- Further references.- 4. Foodplants.- - Introduction.- - Principal foodplants.- - Unusual foodplants.- - Acceptability.- References cited.- Further references.- 5. Breeding.- - Introduction.- - Breeding.- - Synthetic diets.- - Current research on P. brassicae.- References cited.- 6. Development.- Section A. Imaginal discs.- - Larva.- - Pupa.- Section B. Larval development.- a) Weight relationships.- b) Size relationships.- c) Food consumption, utilisation and energetics.- d) Frass drop frequency.- e) Effect of light.- f) Effect of temperature.- g) Temperature limitations in the wild.- h) Effect of population density.- i) Effect of humidity.- j) Effect of food.- References cited.- Further references.- 7. Morphology and Anatomy.- General introduction.- Section A. Morphology.- - Ovum.- - Larva.- - Pupa.- - Imago.- Section B. Anatomy.- - Fat body.- - Reproduction system.- - Digestive system.- - Glands.- - Blood system.- - Central nervous system.- - Muscular system.- - Locomotion.- References cited.- 8. Physiology.- - Colouration of the larva and pupa.- - Diapause.- - Excretion.- - Respiration.- References cited.- Further references.- 9. Hormones.- - Early work.- - Introduction.- - Sites of secretion.- References cited.- 10. Biochemistry.- - Introduction.- - Carbohydrates.- - Lipids.- - Proteins.- - Amino acids.- - Enzymes and coenzymes.- - Vitamins.- - Pigments.- - Nucleotides.- - Mustard oil glycosides.- - Biochemistry of silk.- - Biochemistry of pupal exuviae.- - Radionuclides used on P. brassicae.- - Inorganic ions.- - Sexual similarities and differences.- References cited.- Further references.- 11. Migration.- - Introduction.- - Examples of migration.- - Mark and recapture.- References cited.- Further references.- 12. Senses.- - Introduction.- - Visual senses.- - Olfactory senses.- - Tactile senses.- - Auditory sense.- - Barometric sense.- - Ultra-violet reflectance.- - Thermoregulation.- - Defense mechanisms.- - Chemoreception.- References cited.- Further references.- 13. Economic importance.- - Introduction.- - Depredations by country.- - Estimate of world damage caused by P. brassicae.- References cited.- Further references.- 14. Parasitic control.- Section A. General information.- - Historical background.- - General biology.- - Recorded parasites of Pieris brassicae.- - Concluding remarks.- Section B. Biology of some effective parasites.- - Introduction.- - Egg parasite.- - Larval parasites.- - Pupal parasites.- - Dipterous parasites.- - Ectoparasites.- - Endoparasites.- References cited.- Further references.- 15. Pathogenic control.- General introduction.- Section A. Bacterial control.- a) Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner.- b) Miscellaneous bacteria.- Section B. Virus control.- - Introduction.- - Granulosis virus (GV).- Section C. Fungal control.- Section D. Protozoan control.- References cited.- Further references.- 16. Predators.- - Introduction.- - Bird predators.- - Hymenopterous predators and scavengers.- - Hemipterous predators.- - Coleopterous predators.- - Other insect predators.- - Vertebrate and other miscellaneous predators and scavengers.- References cited.- 17. Chemical control.- - Introduction.- Section A. Control pre-1945.- a) Anecdotal methods.- b) Nauseous smelling plants.- c) Insecticides derived from plants.- d) Early chemical methods.- Section B. Control post-1945 in the field.- Section C. P. brassicae as laboratory insect for insecticide use.- a) Organic insecticides.- b) Phenylurea derivatives.- c) Juvenile hormone analogues.- d) Plant extracts: Azadirachtin.- Section D. Current chemical control of P. brassicae infestations.- - Toxicity to parasites and other invertebrates.- References cited.- Further references.- 18. Integrated control.- References cited.- Botanical specific name index.- Zoological specific name index.

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