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Low Dielectric Constant Materials for IC Applications
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Table of Contents

1 Overview on Low Dielectric Constant Materials for IC Applications.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Dielectric Constant and Bonding Characteristics.- 1.3 Material Properties and Integration Requirements.- 1.4 Characterization of Low-? Dielectrics.- 1.5 Porous Low-? Materials.- 1.6 Conclusion.- References.- 2 Materials Issues and Characterization of Low-? Dielectric Materials.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Thin-Film Material Characterization.- 2.3 General Structure-Property Relationships.- 2.3.1 Dielectric Constant.- 2.3.2 Thermal Properties.- 2.3.3 Moisture Uptake.- 2.3.4 Thermomechanical and Thermal Stress Properties.- 2.4 Fluorinated Polyimide: Effect of Chemical-Structure Modifications on Film Properties.- 2.5 Crosslinked and Thermosetting Materials.- 2.6 Parylene Polymers: Effect of Thermal History on Film Properties.- 2.7 Future Challenges.- References.- 3 Structure and Property Characterization of Low-? Dielectric Porous Thin Films Determined by X-Ray Reflectivity and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Two-Phase Methodology.- 3.2.1 Experimental.- 3.2.2 Two-Phase Analysis Using the Debye Model.- 3.2.3 Results and Discussion.- 3.3 Three-Phase Methodology.- 3.4 Films with Ordered Porous Structure.- 3.5 Limits of SANS Characterization Methods.- 3.6 Future Developments.- 3.6.1 Contrast Variation SXR.- 3.6.2 Inhomogeneous Wall Composition.- 3.7 Conclusion.- References.- 4 Vapor Deposition of Low-? Polymeric Dielectrics.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Vapor-Phase Deposition and Polymerization on Substrates.- 4.3 Parylenes.- 4.3.1 Synthesis Review.- 4.3.2 Properties of Parylene-N.- 4.3.3 Mechanisms and Models of Parylene Polymerization.- 4.3.4 Integration Issues with Parylene-N.- 4.3.5 Synthesis and Properties of Parylene-F.- 4.3.6 Integration Issues with Parylene-F.- 4.4 Polynaphthalene and Its Derivatives.- 4.4.1 Experimental System for Polynaphthalene Synthesis.- 4.4.2 Properties of Polynaphthalene and Fluorinated Polynaphthalene.- 4.5 Teflon and Its Derivatives.- 4.5.1 Synthesis of Teflon-AF.- 4.5.2 Properties of Teflon-AF.- 4.5.3 Integration Issues with Teflon.- 4.6 Vapor-Deposited Polyimides.- 4.7 Prospects for Vapor-Depositable Low-? Polymers.- References.- 5 Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of FSG and a-C:F Low-? Materials.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 FSG Films.- 5.2.1 Introduction.- 5.2.2 General Characteristics.- 5.2.3 HDP-CVD FSG Film.- 5.3 a-C:F Films.- 5.3.1 Introduction.- 5.3.2 Deposition of a-C:F by PE-CVD and Controlling Fluorine Concentration.- 5.3.3 Control of F/C Ratio by Helicon-Wave HDP-CVD.- 5.3.4 Mechanism of the Reduction of the Dielectric Constant of a-C:F.- 5.3.5 Signal-Delay Measurements of CMOS Circuits.- 5.3.6 Conclusion.- References.- 6 Porous Organosilicates for On-Chip Applications: Dielectric Generational Extendibility by the Introduction of Porosity.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Porous Silica.- 6.3 Organosilicates.- 6.4 Porogens.- 6.5 Porous Organosilicate Matrix Resins.- 6.6 Formation of Nanohybrids.- 6.7 Porous Organosilicates.- 6.8 Characterization of Porous Organosilicates.- 6.9 Conclusion.- References.- 7 Metal/Polymer Interfacial Interactions.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Experimental Methods.- 7.2.1 XPS and AES Analysis.- 7.2.2 XPS for Nucleation Modes.- 7.2.3 Other Surface-Science Techniques.- 7.2.4 Metal-Deposition Techniques.- 7.3 Metallization of Fluoropolymers.- 7.3.1 Metal Evaporation.- 7.3.2 Sputter Deposition.- 7.3.3 Aluminum MOCVD.- 7.3.4 Copper MOCVD.- 7.4 Polymers on Metals: Adhesion to Cu.- 7.4.1 Introduction to SiC films.- 7.4.2 Vinyl Silane-Derived Films on Cu.- 7.5 Conclusion.- References.- 8 Diffusion of Metals in Polymers and During Metal/Polymer Interface Formation.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Thermodynamic Considerations.- 8.3 Effect of Metal-Polymer Interaction on the Mobility of Metal Atoms.- 8.4 Surface Diffusion, Nucleation, and Growth of Metal Films.- 8.5 Diffusion and Aggregation.- 8.6 Atomic Diffusion.- 8.7 Conclusion.- References.- 9 Plasma Etching of Low Dielectric Constant Materials.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Technological Requirements and Patterning Approaches.- 9.2.1 Damascene Processing.- 9.2.2 Plasma Etching.- 9.2.3 Important Low Dielectric Constant Materials.- 9.3 Fluorocarbon-Based Etching Processes.- 9.3.1 Fluorine-Doped SiO2(SiOF), Hydrogen Silsequioxane (HSQ) and Methyl Silsequioxane (MSQ).- 9.3.2 Porous Silica Films.- 9.4 Directional Etching of Organic Low-? Materials.- 9.4.1 Hydrocarbon-Based Organic Materials: Etching of Olyarylene Ether (PAE-2) in Ar/O2/N2Gas Mixtures..- 9.4.2 Fluorocarbon-Based Organic Materials: Polytetrafluoroethylene.- 9.4.3 Hybrid Materials.- 9.5 Postetch Mask-Stripping and Via-Cleaning Processes.- 9.6 Conclusion.- References.- 10 Integration of SiLK Semiconductor Dielectric.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 SiLK Semiconductor Dielectric.- 10.3 Subtractive Technologies.- 10.3.1 Introduction.- 10.3.2 Integration Flow for Subtractive Interconnects.- 10.3.3 Integration Unit Steps.- 10.3.4 Electrical Results.- 10.3.5 Conclusion.- 10.4 Damascene Technologies.- 10.4.1 Introduction.- 10.4.2 Embedded-Hardmask Approach for Dual Damascene.- 10.4.3 Dual Damascene Schemes with Multilayered Hardmasks.- 10.5 Cost-of-Ownership.- 10.6 Conclusion.- References.

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From the reviews: Praise for P.S. Ho, J. Leu, and W.W. Lee, Ed's, Low Dielectric Constant Materials for IC Applications Electrical Insulation Magazine "Because this volume contains an excellent overview of the current research and issues with low-k dielectric materials for IC applications along with comprehensive practical information, researches, material scientists, and polymer engineers working in the area of microelectronics will find this book a very valuable addition to their library." "This text addresses the latest advances in low-k materials, thin film characterization, integration into copper interconnection processing, and reliability for microelectronics applications. ! Because this volume contains an excellent overview of the current research and issues with low-k dielectric materials for IC applications along with comprehensive practical information, researchers, material scientists, and polymer engineers working in the area of microelectronics will find this book a very valuable addition to their library." (IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 20 (2), March/April, 2004) "This book addresses issues on the development, characterization and integration of low dielectric constant (k) materials for advanced on-chip interconnects. ! this book illustrates in a comprehensive way the technological challenges brought by the introduction of low-k materials into semiconductor manufacturing. ! Being intended to researchers and engineers active in the field of semiconductor processing, it can be used as an introductory book ! . Highly appreciated." (Jean - Francois de Marneffe, Physicalia, Vol. 25 (4), 2003)

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