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Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners
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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments 1 Introducing the SIOP Model Content and Language Objectives Background on English Learners Demographic Trends Diverse Characteristics Achievement Gaps School Reform, Standards and Accountability Preparing English Learners to be College and Career Ready Academic Language and Literacy Relationship to Second Language Learning Role in Schooling Research on Academic Language and Literacy Effective Instructional Practice for English Learners: The SIOP (R) Model Content-based ESL and Sheltered Content Instruction Research and Development of the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model Effective SIOP Model Instruction Implementing the SIOP (R) Model Summary Discussion Questions 2 Lesson Preparation Content and Language Objectives Background SIOP (R) Feature 1: Content Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed with Students SIOP (R) Feature 2: Language Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed with Students Writing Content and Language Objectives SIOP (R) Feature 3: Content Concepts Appropriate for Age and Educational Background SIOP (R) Feature 4: Supplementary Materials Used to a High Degree SIOP (R) Feature 5: Adaptation of Content to All Levels of Student Proficiency SIOP (R) Feature 6: Meaningful Activities That Integrate Lesson Concepts with Language Practice Opportunities Teaching Ideas for Lesson Preparation Differentiating Ideas for Multi-Level Classes Rating Lessons with the SIOP (R) Protocol The Lesson The Gold Rush (Fourth Grade) Teaching Scenarios Discussion of Lessons Summary Discussion Questions 3 Building Background Content and Language Objectives Background SIOP (R) Feature 7: Concepts Explicitly Linked to Students' Background Experiences Instructional Implications SIOP (R) Feature 8: Links Explicitly Made between Past Learning and New Concepts SIOP (R) Feature 9: Key Vocabulary Emphasized (e.g., introduced, written, repeated, and highlighted for students to see) Academic Language Academic Word List Vocabulary Instruction Teaching Ideas for Building Background Differentiating Ideas for Multi-Level Classes The Lesson Two Were Left (Sixth Grade) Teaching Scenarios Discussion of Lessons Summary Discussion Questions 4 Comprehensible Input Content and Language Objectives Background SIOP (R) Feature 10: Speech Appropriate for Students' Proficiency Levels SIOP (R) Feature 11: Clear Explanation of Academic Tasks SIOP (R) Feature 12: A Variety of Techniques Used to Make Content Concepts Clear Teaching Ideas for Comprehensible Input Differentiating Ideas for Multi-Level Classes The Lesson Buoyancy (Ninth Grade) Teaching Scenarios Discussion of Lessons Summary Discussion Questions 5 Strategies Content and Language Objectives Background SIOP (R) Feature 13: Ample Opportunities Provided for Students to Use Learning Strategies SIOP (R) Feature 14: Scaffolding Techniques Consistently Used, Assisting and Supporting Student Understanding SIOP (R) Feature 15: A Variety of Questions or Tasks That Promote Higher-Order Thinking Skills Teaching Ideas for Strategies Differentiating Ideas for Multi-Level Classes The Lesson The Rain Forest (Seventh Grade) Teaching Scenarios Discussion of Lessons Summary Discussion Questions 6 Interaction Content and Language Objectives Background Mainstream Lesson SIOP (R) Model SIOP (R) Feature 16: Frequent Opportunities for Interaction and Discussion Oral Language Development Other Opportunities for Interaction SIOP (R) Feature 17: Grouping Configurations Support Language and Content Objectives of the Lesson SIOP (R) Feature 18: Sufficient Wait Time for Student Responses Consistently Provided SIOP (R) Feature 19: Ample Opportunity for Students to Clarify Key Concepts in L1 Teaching Ideas for Interaction Differentiating Ideas for Multi-Level Classes The Lesson Addition and Subtraction (First Grade) Teaching Scenarios Discussion of Lessons Summary Discussion Questions 7 Practice & Application Content and Language Objectives Background SIOP (R) Feature 20: Hands-On Materials and/or Manipulatives Provided for Students to Practice Using New Content Knowledge SIOP (R) Feature 21: Activities Provided for Students to Apply Content and Language Knowledge SIOP (R) Feature 22: Activities That Integrate All Language Skills Teaching Ideas for Practice & Application Differentiating Ideas for Multi-Level Classes The Lesson The Solar System (Ninth Grade Newcomers, aged 15-18) Teaching Scenarios Discussion of Lessons Summary Discussion Questions 8 Lesson Delivery Content and Language Objectives Background SIOP (R) Feature 23: Content Objectives Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery SIOP (R) Feature 24: Language Objectives Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery Meeting Content and Language Objectives SIOP (R) Feature 25: Student Engaged Approximately 90% to 100% of the Period SIOP (R) Feature 26: Pacing of the Lesson Appropriate to Students' Ability Levels Teaching Ideas for Lesson Delivery Differentiating Ideas for Multi-Level Classes The Lesson The Gold Rush (Fourth Grade) Teaching Scenarios Discussion of Lessons Summary Discussion Questions 9 Review & Assessment Content and Language Objectives Background SIOP (R) Feature 27: Comprehensive Review of Key Vocabulary SIOP (R) Feature 28: Comprehensive Review of Key Content Concepts SIOP (R) Feature 29: Regular Feedback Provided to Students on Their Output SIOP (R) Feature 30: Assessment of Student Comprehension and Learning of All Lesson Objectives throughout the Lesson Teaching Ideas for Review & Assessment Differentiating Ideas for Multi-Level Classes The Lesson Egyptian Mummies (Eighth Grade) Teaching Scenarios Discussion of Lessons Summary Discussion Questions 10 Issues of Reading, RTI and Special Education for English Learners Content and Language Objectives Issues of Reading and Assessment Assisting Struggling Learners: Response to Intervention Issues Related to Special Education Special Education Services: When Are They Appropriate? Search for Intervention Rather than Disability Teaching Ideas for Students with Special Needs Summary Discussion Questions 11 Effective Use of the SIOP (R) Protocol Content and Language Objectives Best Practice in Using the SIOP (R) Protocol Scoring and Interpreting the SIOP (R) Protocol Assigning Scores Not Applicable (NA) Category Calculating Scores Sample Lesson Using SIOP (R) Scores and Comments Ideas for Using the SIOP protocol Reliability and Validity of the SIOP (R) Summary Discussion Questions 12 Frequently Asked Questions about Getting Started with the SIOP (R) Model Content and Language Objectives General SIOP Questions Questions about Getting Started with the SIOP (R) Model in the Classroom Questions About School-wide Implementation of the SIOP Model Conclusion Appendix A: The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP (R)) Appendix B: Lesson Plans Appendix C: Research on the SIOP (R) Model Appendix D: SIOP Professional Development Books and Resources Glossary References Index

About the Author

Jana Echevarria is a Professor Emerita at California State University, Long Beach. She has taught in elementary, middle, and high schools in general education, special education, ESL, and bilingual programs. She has lived in Taiwan, Spain and Mexico. An internationally known expert on second language learners, Dr. Echevarria is a Fulbright Specialist. Her research and publications focus on effective instruction for English learners, including those with learning disabilities. Currently, she is Co-Principal Investigator with the Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners (CREATE) funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (IES). In 2005, Dr. Echevarria was selected as Outstanding Professor at CSULB. MaryEllen Vogt, Ed.D., is a Professor Emerita of Education at California State University, Long Beach. Dr. Vogt has been a classroom teacher, reading specialist, special education specialist, curriculum coordinator, and university teacher educator. She received her doctorate from the University of California, Berkeley, and is a co-author of fifteen books, including Reading Specialists and Literacy Coaches in the Real World (3rd ed., 2011) and the SIOP (R) book series. Her research interests include improving comprehension in the content areas, teacher change and development, and content literacy and language acquisition for English learners. She was inducted into the California Reading Hall of Fame, received her university's Distinguished Faculty Teaching Award, and served as President of the International Reading Association in 2004-2005. Deborah J. Short is a professional development consultant and a senior research associate at the Center for Applied Linguistics in Washington, DC. She co-developed the SIOP (R) Model for sheltered instruction and has directed national research studies on English language learners funded by the Carnegie Corporation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Dept. of Education. She chaired an expert panel on adolescent ELL literacy that produced a policy report. As the director of Academic Language Research & Training, Dr. Short provides professional development on sheltered instruction and academic literacy around the U.S. and abroad. She has numerous publications, including the SIOP (R) book series and five ESL textbook series for National Geographic/Hampton-Brown. She has taught English as a second/foreign language in New York, California, Virginia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Reviews

"I'll never teach the old way again." -Teacher, Little Rock School District "SIOP (R) helps teachers plan and deliver quality instruction for all students. Bottom line, there is no other professional development that provides teachers with a complete model for instruction." -Dr. Katharine Garcia, Alief ISD, Houston, TX "We started SIOP (R) in 2003 and our state math proficiency went from 39% for our ELL sub group to 75%. In reading it went from 29% to 72%, so we attribute a lot of that to our SIOP (R) model." -Patricia Smiley, Director of Instruction, Emporia, Kansas "An effective teacher is effective whether they have a gifted child, an ELL child or an at risk child. So I do believe that the key is effective teachers and effective teachers come from effective training." -Diane Hart, K-12 Supervisor, Cobb County Georgia "I see SIOP (R) working for all kids. Its basic good practice, so I think it applies to all classrooms, all situations, small group, large group, everything." -Jane McCoy, Instructional Coach Emporia, Kansas "With SIOP (R), teachers learn to write language objectives to match content regardless of the curriculum area." - Dr. Karen Broadnax, Director ESL/Multilingual Services

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