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Mass Transfer Operations for the Practicing Engineer
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Table of Contents

Preface.

Part One Introduction.

1. History of Chemical Engineering and Mass Transfer Operations.

References.

2. Transport Phenomena vs Unit Operations Approach.

References.

3. Basic Calculations.

Introduction.

Units and Dimensions.

Conversion of Units.

The Gravitational Constant gc.

Significant Figures and Scientific Notation.

References.

4. Process Variables.

Introduction.

Temperature.

Pressure.

Moles and Molecular Weight.

Mass, Volume, and Density.

Viscosity.

Reynolds Number.

pH.

Vapor Pressure.

Ideal Gas Law.

References.

5. Equilibrium vs Rate Considerations.

Introduction.

Equilibrium.

Rate.

Chemical Reactions.

References.

6. Phase Equilibrium Principles.

Introduction.

Gibb’s Phase Rule.

Raoult’s Law.

Henry’s Law.

Raoult’s Law vs Henry’s Law.

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in Nonideal Solutions.

Vapor-Solid Equilibrium.

Liquid-Solid Equilibrium.

References.

7. Rate Principles.

Introduction.

The Operating Line.

Fick’s Law.

Diffusion in Gases.

Diffusion in Liquids.

Mass Transfer Coefficients.

Individual Mass Transfer Coefficients.

Equimolar Counterdiffusion.

Diffusion of Component A Through Non-diffusing Component B.

Overall Mass Transfer Coefficients.

Equimolar Counterdiffusion and/or Diffusion in Dilute Solutions.

Gas Phase Resistance Controlling.

Liquid Phase Resistance Controlling.

Experimental Mass Transfer Coefficients.

References.

Part Two Applications: Component and Phase Separation Processes.

8. Introduction to Mass Transfer Operations.

Introduction.

Classification of Mass Transfer Operations.

Contact of Immiscible Phases.

Miscible Phases Separated by a Membrane.

Direct Contact of Miscible Phases.

Mass Transfer Equipment.

Distillation.

Absorption.

Adsorption.

Extraction.

Humidification and Drying.

Other Mass Transfer Unit Operations.

The Selection Decision.

Characteristics of Mass Transfer Operations.

Unsteady-State vs Steady-State Operation.

Flow Pattern.

Stagewise vs Continuous Operation.

References.

9. Distillation.

Introduction.

Flash Distillation.

Batch Distillation.

Continuous Distillation with Reflux.

Equipment and Operation.

Equilibrium Considerations.

Binary Distillation Design: McCabe-Thiele Graphical Method.

Multicomponent Distillation: Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland (FUG) Method.

Packed Column Distillation.

References.

10. Absorption and Stripping.

Introduction.

Description of Equipment.

Packed Columns.

Plate Columns.

Design and Performance Equations?Packed Columns.

Liquid Rate.

Column Diameter.

Column Height.

Pressure Drop.

Design and Performance Equations-Plate Columns.

Stripping.

Packed vs Plate Tower Comparison.

Summary of Key Equations.

References.

11. Adsorption.

Introduction.

Adsorption Classification.

Activated Carbon.

Activated Alumina.

Silica Gel.

Molecular Sieves.

Adsorption Equilibria.

Freundlich Equation.

Langmuir Isotherms.

Description of Equipment.

Design and Performance Equations.

Regeneration.

References.

12. Liquid-Liquid and Solid-Liquid Extraction.

Introduction.

Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

The Extraction Process.

Equipment.

Solvent Selection.

Equilibrium.

Graphical Procedures.

Analytical Procedures.

Solid-Liquid Extraction (Leaching).

Process Variables.

Equipment and Operation.

Design and Predictive Equations.

References.

13. Humidification and Drying.

Introduction.

Psychrometry and the Psychrometric Chart.

Humidification.

Equipment.

Describing Equations.

Drying.

Rotary Dryers.

Spray Dryers.

References.

14. Crystallization.

Introduction.

Phase Diagrams.

The Crystallization Process.

Crystal Physical Characteristics.

Equipment.

Describing Equations.

Design Considerations.

References.

15. Membrane Separation Processes.

Introduction.

Reverse Osmosis.

Describing Equations.

Ultrafiltration.

Describing Equations.

Microfiltration.

Describing Equations.

Gas Permeation.

Describing Equations.

References.

16. Phase Separation Equipment.

Introduction.

Fluid-Particle Dynamics.

Gas-Solid (G-S) Equipment.

Gravity Settlers.

Cyclones.

Electrostatic Precipitators.

Venturi Scrubbers.

Baghouses.

Gas-Liquid (G-L) Equipment.

Liquid-Solid (L-S) Equipment.

Sedimentation.

Centrifugation.

Flotation.

Liquid-Liquid (L-L) Equipment.

Solid-Solid (S?S) Equipment.

High-Gradient Magnetic Separation.

Solidification.

References.

Part Three Other Topics.

17. Other and Novel Separation Processes.

Freeze Crystallization.

Ion Exchange.

Liquid Ion Exchange.

Resin Adsorption.

Evaporation.

Foam Fractionation.

Dissociation Extraction.

Electrophoresis.

Vibrating Screens.

References.

18. Economics and Finance.

Introduction.

The Need for Economic Analyses.

Definitions.

Simple Interest.

Compound Interest.

Present Worth.

Evaluation of Sums of Money.

Depreciation.

Fabricated Equipment Cost Index.

Capital Recovery Factor.

Present Net Worth.

Perpetual Life.

Break-Even Point.

Approximate Rate of Return.

Exact Rate of Return.

Bonds.

Incremental Cost.

Principles of Accounting.

Applications.

References.

19. Numerical Methods.

Introduction.

Applications.

References.

20. Open-Ended Problems.

Introduction.

Developing Students’ Power of Critical Thinking.

Creativity.

Brainstorming.

Inquiring Minds.

Failure, Uncertainty, Success: Are They Related?

Angels on a Pin.

Applications.

References.

21. Ethics.

Introduction.

Teaching Ethics.

Case Study Approach.

Integrity.

Moral Issues.

Guardianship.

Engineering and Environmental Ethics.

Future Trends.

Applications.

References.

22. Environmental Management and Safety Issues.

Introduction.

Environmental Issues of Concern.

Health Risk Assessment.

Risk Evaluation Process for Health.

Hazard Risk Assessment.

Risk Evaluation Process for Accidents.

Applications.

References.

Appendix.

Appendix A. Units.

A.1 The Metric System.

A.2 The SI System.

A.3 Seven Base Units.

A.4 Two Supplementary Units.

A.5 SI Multiples and Prefixes.

A.6 Conversion Constants (SI).

A.7 Selected Common Abbreviations.

Appendix B. Miscellaneous Tables.

Appendix C. Steam Tables.

Index.

About the Author

LOUIS THEODORE, ENG SCD, is a professor in the ChemicalEngineering Department at Manhattan College in Bronx, New York, andthe recipient of the prestigious Ripperton Award from theInternational Air and Waste Management Association's and theAmerican Society for Engineering Education's AT&T FoundationAward for "excellence in the instruction of engineering students."Professor Theodore is a contributor to Perry's Chemical Engineers'Handbook, the coeditor of Handbook of Chemical and EnvironmentalEngineering Calculations (Wiley), the coauthor of Thermodynamicsfor the Practicing Engineer (Wiley), and the author of Fluid Flowfor the Practicing Chemical Engineer and Air Pollution ControlEquipment Calculations, also from Wiley. FRANCESCO RICCI is the recipient of numerous academic awards andscholarships. Aside from academic research, Mr. Ricci's industrialexperience includes short tenures at Air Products and Chemicals,Inc. and Bristol-Myers Squibb. He has lectured at the undergraduatelevel on chemical engineering thermodynamics as well as on reactordesign. Mr. Ricci is the coauthor of Thermodynamics for thePracticing Engineer (Wiley), the author of the solutions manual forsaid text, and a contributing author to the 2009 title Introductionto Environmental Management.

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