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Mechatronics
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Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

1 Introducing mechatronics

Chapter objectives

1.1 What is mechatronics?

1.2 The design process

1.3 Systems

1.4 Measurement systems

1.5 Control systems

1.6 Programmable logic controller

1.7 Examples of mechatronic systems

Summary

Problems

Sensors and signal conditioning

2 Sensors and transducers

Chapter objectives

2.1 Sensors and transducers

2.2 Performance terminology

2.3 Displacement, position and proximity

2.4 Velocity and motion

2.5 Force

2.6 Fluid pressure

2.7 Liquid flow

2.8 Liquid level

2.9 Temperature

2.10 Light sensors

2.11 Selection of sensors

2.12 Inputting data by switches

Summary

Problems

3 Signal conditioning

Chapter objectives

3.1 Signal conditioning

3.2 The operational amplifier

3.3 Protection

3.4 Filtering

3.5 Wheatstone bridge

3.6 Pulse modulation

3.7 Problems with signals

3.8 Power transfer

Summary

Problems

4 Digital signals

Chapter objectives

4.1 Digital signals

4.2 Analogue and digital signals

4.3 Digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital converters

4.4 Multiplexers

4.5 Data acquisition

4.6 Digital signal processing

Summary

Problems

5 Digital logic

Chapter objectives

5.1 Digital logic

5.2 Logic gates

5.3 Applications of logic gates

5.4 Sequential logic

Summary

Problems

6 Data presentation systems

Chapter objectives

6.1 Displays

6.2 Data presentation elements

6.3 Magnetic recording

6.4 Optical recording

6.5 Displays

6.6 Data acquisition systems

6.7 Measurement systems

6.8 Testing and calibration

Summary

Problems

Actuation

7 Pneumatic and hydraulic actuation systems

Chapter objectives

7.1 Actuation systems

7.2 Pneumatic and hydraulic systems

7.3 Directional control valves

7.4 Pressure control valves

7.5 Cylinders

7.6 Servo and proportional control valves

7.7 Process control valves

7.8 Rotary actuators

Summary

Problems

8 Mechanical actuation systems

Chapter objectives

8.1 Mechanical systems

8.2 Types of motion

8.3 Kinematic chains

8.4 Cams

8.5 Gear trains

8.6 Ratchet and pawl

8.7 Belt and chain drives

8.8 Bearings

8.9 Mechanical aspects of motor selection

Summary

Problems

9 Electrical actuation systems

Chapter objectives

9.1 Electrical systems

9.2 Mechanical switches

9.3 Solid-state switches

9.4 Solenoids

9.5 D.C. motors

9.6 A.C. motors

9.7 Stepper motors

Summary

Problems

Microprocessor systems

10 Microprocessors and microcontrollers

Chapter objectives

10.1 Control

10.2 Microprocessor systems

10.3 Microcontrollers

10.4 Applications

10.5 Programming

Summary

Problems

11 Assembly language

Chapter objectives

11.1 Languages

11.2 Instruction sets

11.3 Assembly language programs

11.4 Subroutines

11.5 Look-up tables

11.6 Embedded systems

Summary

Problems

12 C language

12.1 Why C?

12.2 Program structure

12.3 Branches and loops

12.4 Arrays

12.5 Pointers

12.6 Program development

12.7 Examples of programs

12.8 Arduino programs

Summary

Problems

13 Input/output systems

Chapter Objectives

13.1 Interfacing

13.2 Input/output addressing

13.3 Interface requirements

13.4 Peripheral interface adapters

13.5 Serial communications interface

13.6 Examples of interfacing

Summary

Problems

14 Programmable logic controllers

Chapter objectives

14.1 Programmable logic controllers

14.2 Basic PLC structure

14.3 Input/output processing

14.4 Ladder programming

14.5 Instruction lists

14.6 Latching and internal relays

14.7 Sequencing

14.8 Timers and counters

14.9 Shift registers

14.10 Master and jump controls

14.11 Data handling

14.12 Analogue input/output

Summary

Problems

15 Communication systems

Chapter objectives

15.1 Digital communications

15.2 Centralised, hierarchical and distributed control

15.3 Networks

15.4 Protocols

15.5 Open Systems Interconnection communication model

15.6 Serial communication interfaces

15.7 Parallel communication interfaces

15.8 Wireless protocols

Summary

Problems

16 Fault finding

Chapter objectives

16.1 Fault-detection techniques

16.2 Watchdog timer

16.3 Parity and error coding checks

16.4 Common hardware faults

16.5 Microprocessor systems

16.6 Emulation and simulation

16.7 PLC systems

Summary

Problems

System models

17 Basic system models

Chapter objectives

17.1 Mathematical models

17.2 Mechanical system building blocks

17.3 Electrical system building blocks

17.4 Fluid system building blocks

17.5 Thermal system building blocks

Summary

Problems

18 System models

Chapter objectives

18.1 Engineering systems

18.2 Rotational-translational systems

18.3 Electromechanical systems

18.4 Linearity

18.5 Hydraulic-mechanical systems

Summary

Problems

19 Dynamic responses of systems

Chapter objectives

19.1 Modelling dynamic systems

19.2 Terminology

19.3 First-order systems

19.4 Second-order systems

19.5 Performance measures for second-order systems

19.6 System identification

Summary

Problems

20 System transfer functions

Chapter objectives

20.1 The transfer function

20.2 First-order systems

20.3 Second-order systems

20.4 Systems in series

20.5 Systems with feedback loops

20.6 Effect of pole location on transient response

Summary

Problems

21 Frequency response

Chapter objectives

21.1 Sinusoidal input

21.2 Phasors

21.3 Frequency response

21.4 Bode plots

21.5 Performance specifications

21.6 Stability

Summary

Problems

22 Closed-loop controllers

Chapter objectives

22.1 Continuous and discrete control processes

22.2 Terminology

22.3 Two-step mode

22.4 Proportional mode

22.5 Derivative control

22.6 Integral control

22.7 PID controller

22.8 Digital controllers

22.9 Control system performance

22.10 Controller tuning

22.11 Velocity control

22.12 Adaptive control

Summary

Problems

23 Artificial intelligence

Chapter objectives

23.1 What is meant by artificial intelligence?

23.2 Perception and cognition

23.3 Reasoning

23.4 Learning

Summary

Problems

Conclusion

24 Mechatronics systems

Chapter objectives

24.1 Mechatronic designs

24.2 Case studies

24.3 Robotics

Summary

Problems and assignments

Appendices

A The Laplace transform

A.1 The Laplace transform

A.2 Unit steps and impulses

A.3 Standard Laplace transforms

A.4 The inverse transform

Problems

B Number systems

B.1 Number systems

B.2 Binary mathematics

B.3 Floating numbers

B.4 Gray code

Problems

C Boolean algebra

C.1 Laws of Boolean algebra

C.2 De Morgan laws

C.3 Boolean function generation from truth tables

C.4 Karnaugh maps

Problems

D Instruction sets

E C library functions

F MATLAB and SIMULINK

F.1 MATLAB

F.2 SIMULINK

G Electrical circuit analysis

G.1 D.C. circuits

G.2 A.C. circuits

Further information

Answers

Index

Promotional Information

Mechatronics is essential reading for students requiring an introduction to this exciting area at undergraduate and higher diploma level.

About the Author

Bill Bolton was formerly Consultant to the Further Education Unit and Head of Research and Development and Monitoring at BTEC. He has also been a UNESCO consultant and is the author of many successful engineering textbooks.

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