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Modelling and Sculpting Animals


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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Symbolism in the sculptural representation of animals-India-Assyria-Egypt-Greece. CHAPTER II THE HORSE Natural History: Cannon - bone-splint bones-teeth-organs of sense-forms. Breeds. The importance of the mouth. Placing the bridle. Paces. Ease and uniformity in the movements. "Rules of motion in the walk, the trot, and the gallop. " The amble. CHAPTER III THE FIRST STAGES IN THE MAKING OF A SMALL MODEL OF A HORSE Importance of an exact model. Armature for the sketch : the iron. Lead piping for legs. Covering armature with first layer of clay. General indictions. Large planes. Measurements of construction. CHAPTER IV COMPARATIVE MEASUREMENTS Colonel Duhousset's the best. The Measurements. Necessity of taking these measurements exactly on the living model. Certain modifications. The Coleoni statude. The necessity of amplifying the legs and detached parts in a statue placed on a high pedestal. CHAPTER V FURTHER STAGES OF THE WORK The movement of the planes. Placing the heads of the bones. Indication of the muscles. Importance of this anatomical work. Enfolding the previous work in the skin. Some points about the skin of the horse. CHAPTER VI SOME SPECIAL POINTS "Fetlock, pastern, and hoof." Tail. Usual names of the different parts of the horse. CHAPTER VII GENERAL PRINCIPLES Amateurs and science. Part which science plays in the progress of art. Opinions of leading authoriities. Dr. Riches-Leonardo da Vinci-Jules Breton-Gerome-Barye-Peiss. Art not mere imitation. The value of study. True personality. Conclusions on the importance of science in the execution of sculptural works. CHAPTER VIII THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE TWO CHASSIS Lengths of the pieces required. Divisions of the side pieces. The parts of each chassis must be at right angles. Height-measures. Measuring-sticks. CHAPTER IX FIXING THE TWO CHASSIS Placing model in the centre of the small chassis. Uprights. Necessity of absolute stability. First method of putting the large chassis in place. Second method. CHAPTER X CONSTRUCTION OF LARGE ARMATURE Stand for large armature. Fixing the iron. How to use the two chassis and the implements. Plumb-lines. Finding the elevation of a given pint- - its distance-its depth. The wooden armature. How it is made. Wood for neck and head. Pieces of iron for legs. The tail. "Butterflies." CHAPTER XI COVERING THE ARMATURE WITH CLAY Thickness of the clay. Where to begin. Fixing of principal points. Covering the irons of the legs. Position of legs. CHAPTER XII THE POINTING The Method. Horizontal lines on model and enlargement. How best to proceed. Example of fixing a given point. Important points on legs not situated on the horizontal lines. Fixing points under the belly. The strength of the armature. Removal of the two chassis. The advantages of this method. A second method. CHAPTER XIII POINTING A RELIEF First method. Second method. CHAPTER XIV ON THE SCULPTURAL PRESENTMENT OF ANIMALS IN GENERAL Importance given to detail in modern sculpture. Its advantages and limitations. Sculpture in monumental art. Necessity of larger treatment. Nature must ever be the the guide. "The value of the compass, of osteology, or myology." Albert Duerer on the Observation of Nature-Sir Joshua Reynolds-Ingres-Carpeaux. The lion especially suitable to decorative art. CHAPTER XV THE LION Natural history. Its walk. Varieties. How to study the lion. The sculptor Barye's interpretation of animals. Stevens. CHAPTER XVI ARMATURE FOR A LION; MOVEMENT AND CONSTRUCTION The difference between the armature for a lion and that for a horse merely one of size. Position of fore paws. Meaurements of construction. Measurements in the case of a lion measuring 6 feet 3 inches. Comparative measurements. First stage of work. The second stage. The making of a larger lion for decorative purposes. CHAPTER XVII THE BULL Natural history. The teeth. The horns. Breeds. The Assyrian monumental bulls. The Farnese bull of Apollonius. Ancient cameos. The sculptural features of the bull. "CHAPTER XVIII ARMATURE OF THE BULL; CONSTRUCTION, MEASUREMENTS" Similarity of the principle of the armature for a bull with that for a horse or for a lion. How to establish the measurements of construction from the comparative measurements of the head. "Sculptural treatment of the bull, Measurements of construction." Comparative measurements. CASTING IN PLASTER I. THE CASTING OF A BUST. Division of the bust. Mixing the plaster. First layer of yellow plaster. Second layer of plaster and irons. Preparation of the edges of the front piece. Back piece of the mould. Opening the mould. Washing the mould. Soaping and oiling the mould. Running in the cast. Chipping off the mould. II. CASTING OF A FIGURE. Bands of clay and first layer (yellow). Placing external irons. Cutting the joins. The back pieces. Opening the mould. Removal of the clay. Soaping and oiling the mould. Internal irons. Running the plaster into the mould. Removing the pieces of the mould. III. THE CASTING OF A HIGH RELIEF. Casting in one piece. Similarity of technical process with that described it I. And II. How to run the plaster into the mould. Consolidating the mould. &nbs

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