Acknowledgments ix Acknowledgments for the English Translation x Introduction 1 What Is, and To What End Do We Study, Literary Theory? 1 Literary Theory and Classics 4 Objections Raised against Literary Theory 6 How to Use This Book 11 Introductions to Literary Theory 13 1 Russian Formalism 17 The Question of Literariness 19 Roman Jakobson's Model of Linguistic Communication 21 Poetic Language as Defamiliarization 23 Further Reading 25 2 Structuralism 26 The Founder of Structuralism: Ferdinand de Saussure 27 Saussure's Definition of the Linguistic Sign 29 The Meaning of Differences 30 Structuralism and Subject 33 Structural Anthropology 34 Is Structuralist Interpretation Possible? 38 Structuralist Definitions of Literary Genres 40 Further Reading 42 3 Narratology 43 Vladimir Propp's Analysis of the Folk Tale 44 Greimas's Actantial Theory of Narrative 47 Roland Barthes and the Study of Narrative Texts 50 Structuralist Plot-Analysis: Gerard Genette 55 Irene de Jong's Narratological Analysis of the Homeric Epics 60 Further Reading 62 4 Mikhail Bakhtin 63 Bakhtin's Life and the Problem of His Writings 64 Dialogism and the Novel 66 The Carnivalization of Literature 69 Menippean Satire and Ancient Carnivalesque Literature 71 Further Reading 76 5 Intertextuality 77 Leading the Way: Julia Kristeva 77 Further Developments of Intertextuality 78 Gerard Genette's Model of Hypertextuality 80 Intertextuality in Virgil 83 Further Reading 85 6 Reader-Response Criticism 86 Empirical Reception Studies 87 Aesthetics of Reception 88 American Reader-Response Criticism 91 Wheeler's Analysis of Ovid's Metamorphoses 94 Further Reading 96 7 Orality - Literacy 98 Oral Cultures: The Theses of Goody and Watt 99 What Does "Orality"Mean? 102 Oral Poetry 104 The Homeric Epics as a Test Case 106 Further Reading 111 8 Deconstruction 113 The Foundations: Derrida's Criticism of Logocentrism 114 Deconstruction in America 120 Objections to Deconstruction 122 The Role of the Author 124 Stanley Fish's Model of "Interpretive Communities" 127 The Responsibility of the Interpreter 130 Deconstruction's Merits and Demerits 136 Deconstruction in Antiquity? Socrates und Protagoras 137 Further Reading 139 9 Michel Foucault and Discourse Analysis 140 The Power of Discourse 141 Objections to Foucault's Analysis of Discourse 145 Foucault and Antiquity 149 The Debate about Foucault's Interpretation of Ancient Sexuality 153 Further Reading 157 10 New Historicism 159 New Historicism and Deconstruction 160 New Historicism and Michel Foucault 165 Objections to New Historicism 167 New Historicism and Antiquity 172 Further Reading 174 11 Feminist Approaches/Gender Studies 176 The Feminist Movement and Definitions of "Woman" 176 Feminism in Literary Criticism 178 French Feminism 180 Pragmatic Feminism in Literary Criticism 182 From Images of Women to Gender Studies 187 Queer Theory 189 Gender Studies and Attic Drama 191 Further Reading 193 12 Psychoanalytic Approaches 195 Interpreting Dreams, Interpreting Literature 197 Three Attempts at Psychoanalytic Interpretation 200 Language and the Unconscious: Jacques Lacan 202 Further Reading 204 Conclusions? 205 Whither Now? 207 Additional Notes 209 References and Bibliography 215 Index 233
Thomas A. Schmitz is Professor of Greek Language and Literature at the University of Bonn, and is one of the founding members of the Centre for the Classical Tradition. He has previously held positions at Paris, Harvard, Heidelberg, and Frankfurt. He is the author of over 40 books and articles including Bildung und Macht: Zur sozialen und politischen Funktion der zweiten Sophistik in der griechischen Welt der Kaiserzeit (1997) and Moderne Literaturtheorie und antike Texte: Eine Einfuhrung (2002).
"A major aspect of this book is Schmitz's refreshing modesty and candour." (Journal of the Classical Association of Canada, Winter 2009) "...a clear and engaging introduction to some of the most important areas of modern literary theorizing. What sets this apart from a simple introduction, however, is the way that the general theoretical position outlined in each chapter is keyed into the context of modern classical studies...a useful book and one that can be strongly recommended to undergraduates and even intrepid sixth-formers..." (Greece and Rome, Vol 55 No. 2 2008) "Brief description of theoretical approaches ...[in] frank manner of discourse ... Schmitz tries to help students understand the concepts he explains." (Bryn Mawr Classical Review) "As a reference guide, a bibliographical resource and an engaging read, this book should prove an asset to many." (Journal of Classics Teaching) "Schmitz is clearly an intelligent reader and advocate of theory. It is a solid piece of work which will, I hope, serve as a starting point for acquainting many classicists with the questions and challenges theory has to offer. The field as a whole will only benefit from Schmitz's contribution." (New England Classical Journal)