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Moral Calculations


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Table of Contents

Games of Morality.- 1. Auction and Posing.- The Dollar Auction Game.- The Three Critical Points.- Out of the Party and into the Psych Lab.- High-Stakes Auctions.- Dollar Auctions in Everyday Life.- Dollar Auctions in the Wild.- Posing for a Random Period.- 2. The Brute as Hero.- Dice and the Common Interest.- A Martian Humankind.- The Protagonist Appears.- Game Theory.- Pure and Mixed Strategies.- Optimal Mixed Strategies.- Who Optimizes and Why?.- 3. The Prisoner's Dilemma.- Two Logical Solutions.- On the Nature of Logic.- Everyday Prisoner's Dilemmas.- Prisoner's Dilemmas with Many Persons.- Iterated Prisoner's Dilemmas.- Axelrod's Competitions.- The Personality Traits of the Programs.- Tit for Tat in Sticklebacks.- Psychological Experiments with the Prisoner's Dilemma.- The Significance of Phrasing.- 4. The Golden Rule.- Logic and the Golden Rule.- The Categorical Imperative.- The Categorical Imperative and Diversity.- The Gift of the Magi.- The Basic Forms of Two-Person Games with Mixed Motivation.- Chicken.- Asymmetric Games.- The Dollar Auction and Ethical Principles.- Cooperation and Rationality.- 5. The Bluff.- The World of Poker.- A Simple Poker Model.- The Evolution of the Poker Face.- The Poker Model Analyzed.- Bluff Big or Not at All.- Bluff as a Cognitive Strategy.- Nature's Bluffs.- The Sources of Diversity.- 6. John von Neumann's Game Theory.- The Case of the Schizophrenic Snail.- The Mathematical Background of von Neumann's Theorem.- The Principle of Rationality.- Rational Players.- The Value of the Game.- Stone-Paper-Scissors.- Generalizations of von Neumann's Theorem.- Games with Handicap.- The Part and the Whole.- 7. Competition for a Common Goal.- Purely Cooperative Games.- Mutual Fate Control.- Theoretical Considerations.- Experimental Evidence.- Asynchronous Decisions.- The Role of Being Informed.- The Rationale of Curfews.- On the Nature of Psychological Laws.- Cooperation by Competition.- 8. Hawks and Doves.- The Theory of Group Selection.- The Theory of Gene Selection.- Competition Between the Two Theories.- The Struggle Between Hawks and Doves.- Rationality in the Selfish Gene Theory.- Rationality in Group Selection Theory.- Complex Strategies.- 9. Socialism and Free Enterprise.- Economics and Evolution.- The Invisible Hand.- Theories of Equilibrium.- Planned Economies.- The Diversity of Mixed Economies.- The Logic of Evolution.- 10. Games Elementary Particles Play.- The Dual Nature of Light.- Two-Slit Experiments.- If You Ask a Stupid Question ....- Schroedinger's Equation.- Probabilistic Frogs.- Chance as an Organizing Force.- Searching for the Grand Unified Theory.- The Great Game of Nature.- The Psychology of Rationality.- 11. Loves Me, Loves Me Not.- Schroedinger's Cat.- Digression: "Poetic" Thoughts.- The Contingency of Human Concepts.- Stone-Paper-Scissors Redux.- The Cheating Innkeeper.- Quasi-rationality.- Plucking Petals.- Distancing.- 12. Rational Irrationality.- Correct Decisions Reached by Inadequate Methods.- Fortuities of Consciousness.- The Methods of Rational Decisions.- Meditative Techniques.- The Scientific Foundations of Meditative Techniques.- Ideomotor Techniques.- Today Thus, Tomorrow Otherwise.- Logic and Intuition.- 13. Collective Rationality.- Analysis of the Science 84 Game.- Outcome of the Million Dollar Game.- The Hidden Aim of the Game.- The Hiding Lottery.- The Smallest Number Wins Game.- The Means of Collective Rationality.- 14. The Heterogeneity of Human Thought.- Logically Isomorphic Tasks.- On the Role of Rationality.- Descartes's Error.- Where Does Rationality Reside in Us?.- Games People Play.- Further Aspects of Games.- 15. There Are Many Ways to Nirvana.- The Nature of Rational Cognition.- The Nature of Mystical Cognition.- Rationality as a Technique of Distancing.- Beyond Rationality.- The Two Components of Thinking.- Game as Essence.- Nirvana.- References and Further Reading.

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