Brief Contents Acknowledgments xvii About the authors xix Part 1 Historical Perspectives 1 1. Early History (2000 b.c. to a.d. 1800) 2 2. Prisons (1800 to the Present) 26 3. Correctional Ideologies: The Pendulum Swings 48 4. The Sentencing and Appeals Process 68 Part 2 Alternatives to Imprisonment 95 5. Probation 96 6. Diversion and Intermediate Sanctions 120 Part 3 Institutional Corrections 155 7. Custody Functions 156 8. Security Threat Groups and Prison Gangs 180 9. Management and Treatment Functions 192 10. Jails and Detention Facilities 216 11. State and Local Prison Systems 238 12. The Federal System 256 13. Private-Sector Systems 278 14. The Death Penalty 296 15. Parole and Reentry 320 Part 4 Correctional Clients 347 16. Inmate and Ex-Offender Rights 348 17. Male Offenders 374 18. Female Offenders 392 19. Juvenile Offenders 416 20. Facilities for Juveniles 438 21. Special-Category Offenders 456 Glossary 493 Author index 507 Subject index
Harry E. Allen is Professor Emeritus in the Justice Studies Department at San Jose State University. Before joining San Jose State University in 1978, he served as director of the Program for the Study of Crime and Delinquency at Ohio State University. Previously, he served as executive secretary of the Governor's Task Force on Corrections for the State of Ohio after teaching at Florida State University in the Department of Criminology and Corrections. Professor Allen is the author or coauthor of numerous articles, chapters in books, essays, and textbooks, including the first 10 editions of Corrections in America with Clifford E. Simonsen, the 11th edition with Drs. Simonsen and Edward J. Latessa, and the last three with Professor Latessa and Bruce S. Ponder. He also coauthored the first three editions of Corrections in the Community with Edward J. Latessa. He has been very active in professional associations and was the first criminologist to serve as president of both the American Society of Criminology (1982) and the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (1994). He received the Herbert Block Award for service to the American Society of Criminology and the Founder's Award for contributions to the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. He is a fellow in both the Western and the American Society of Criminology and was the most frequently cited criminologist in the field of correctional textbooks. He was a Humana Scholar at the University of Louisville (2001) and for the past 14 years has been designing and instructing online courses for the University of Louisville in the areas of corrections, ethics, substance abuse, community corrections, terrorism, alternatives to incarceration, and capital punishment. Edward J. Latessa received his Ph.D. from Ohio State University in 1979 and is a professor and director of the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. Dr. Latessa has published over 140 works in the area of criminal justice, corrections, and juvenile justice. He is coauthor of eight books, including Corrections in the Community and Corrections in America. Professor Latessa has directed over 150 funded research projects, including studies of day reporting centers, juvenile justice programs, drug courts, prison programs, intensive supervision programs, halfway houses, and drug programs. He and his staff have also assessed over 600 correctional programs throughout the United States, and he has provided assistance and workshops in over 45 states. Dr. Latessa served as president of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (1989-1990). He has also received several awards, including the Marguerite Q. Warren and Ted B. Palmer Differential Intervention Award presented by the Division of Corrections and Sentencing of the American Society of Criminology (2010); the Outstanding Community Partner Award from the Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections (2010); the Maud Booth Correctional Services Award in recognition of dedicated service and leadership presented by the Volunteers of America (2010); the Community Hero Award presented by Community Resources for Justice (2010); the Bruce Smith Award for outstanding contributions to criminal justice by the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (2010); the George Beto Scholar, College of Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University (2009); the Mark Hatfield Award for Contributions in public policy research by the Hatfield School of Government at Portland State University (2008); the Outstanding Achievement Award by the National Juvenile Justice Court Services Association (2007); the August Vollmer Award from the American Society of Criminology (2004); the Simon Dinitz Criminal Justice Research Award from the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction (2002); the Margaret Mead Award for dedicated service to the causes of social justice and humanitarian advancement by the International Community Corrections Association (2001); the Peter P. Lejins Award for Research from the American Correctional Association (1999); the ACJS Fellow Award (1998); the ACJS Founders Award (1992); and the Simon Dinitz Award by the Ohio Community Corrections Organization. In 2013, he was identified as one of the most innovative people in criminal justice by a national survey conducted by the Center for Court Innovation in partnership with the Bureau of Justice Assistance and the U.S. Department of Justice. He has been married to his beautiful wife, Sally, for over 35 years and has four wonderful children, all of whom grew up too fast. Bruce S. Ponder grew up in part on the raj of the Maharaja of Dharbhanaga and in Europe. He was a professional race car driver in the 1970s, winning major competitions including the "12 Hours of Sebring" (1972). He was formally trained in political science, computer information systems, and computer sciences. He also studied terrorism extensively and team-taught in-service training programs at the Southern Police Institute. Currently,he is Internet coordinator/online course developer and team instructor in a variety of courses at the Justice Administration Department at the University of Louisville, particularly in terrorism, intelligence and homeland security, and corrections.