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Nuclear Decommissioning


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Contributor contact details Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy Preface Dedication Chapter 1: Introduction to nuclear decommissioning: definitions and history Abstract: 1.1 Semantics 1.2 Definitions 1.3 Reasons for publishing this book 1.4 Planning for decommissioning 1.5 Execution 1.6 International experience 1.7 Conclusions Part I: Planning: fundamental aspects of starting a nuclear decommissioning process Chapter 2: Overview of nuclear decommissioning principles and approaches Abstract: 2.1 The scale of the decommissioning industry 2.2 What is decommissioning? 2.3 Reasons for final shutdown 2.4 The no-action baseline 2.5 History and evolution 2.6 Responsibilities and interests of parties involved in decommissioning 2.7 Overview of technical and nontechnical aspects relevant to decommissioning 2.8 Future trends 2.9 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 3: Nuclear decommissioning policy, infrastructure, strategies and project planning Abstract: 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Decommissioning policy 3.3 Factors affecting decommissioning strategy 3.4 Options for decommissioning 3.5 The planning process 3.6 Challenges and lessons learned 3.7 Future trends 3.8 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 4: Financing and economics of nuclear facility decommissioning Abstract: 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Nuclear decommissioning cost estimating and financing 4.3 Recent experience in decommissioning 4.4 Funding schemes 4.5 Challenges and lessons learned 4.6 Future trends 4.7 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 5: Characterisation of radioactive materials in redundant nuclear facilities: key issues for the decommissioning plan Abstract: 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Characterisation objectives 5.3 The radionuclide inventory 5.4 Stages in the characterisation process 5.5 Characterisation methods 5.6 Equipment and measurement techniques for characterising wastes 5.7 Hazardous materials 5.8 Physical characterisation 5.9 Economic issues 5.10 Challenges and lessons learned 5.11 Future trends 5.12 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 6: Managing the transition from operation to decommissioning of a nuclear facility Abstract: 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Objectives of the transition period 6.3 Strategic aspects 6.4 Management and administrative aspects 6.5 Implementation aspects 6.6 Challenges and lessons learned 6.7 Sources of further information Chapter 7: Nuclear decommissioning project organization, management and human resources Abstract: 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Organization responsible for decommissioning 7.3 Responsibilities, qualifications and training 7.4 Contractors versus operational staff 7.5 Management of change 7.6 Challenges and lessons learned 7.7 Future trends 7.8 Sources of further information Chapter 8: Public engagement and stakeholder consultation in nuclear decommissioning projects Abstract: 8.1 Introduction 8.3 Stakeholders relevant to the decommissioning process 8.4 Identifying stakeholders 8.5 The Dounreay low-level waste-disposal facility 8.6 Factors that may influence stakeholder involvement in decommissioning 8.7 How to handle stakeholders 8.8 Challenges and lessons learned 8.9 Future trends 8.10 Sources of further information and advice 8.12 Appendix: list of abbreviations Chapter 9: Radiological protection in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: safety, regulations and licensing Abstract: 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Personnel health and safety issues (ALARA) 9.3 Environmental protection 9.4 Risk prevention and decommissioning preparation 9.5 National and international guidance 9.6 The licensing process for decommissioning 9.7 Challenges and lessons learned 9.8 Future trends Chapter 10: Nuclear facility design and operation to facilitate decommissioning: lessons learned Abstract: 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Project factors relevant to design for decommissioning 10.3 Physical features and practice to facilitate decommissioning 10.4 Application of lessons learned: practical guidance 10.5 Challenges and future trends 10.6 Sources of further information and advice 10.7 Acknowledgement Part II: Execution: nuclear decommissioning processes and technologies, radioactive waste management, site rehabilitation and cleanup Chapter 11: Safe enclosure and entombment strategies in nuclear decommissioning projects Abstract: 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Definition of safe enclosure and entombment 11.3 Examples for deferred dismantling strategies (safe enclosure) 11.4 Examples for entombment 11.5 Reasons for selecting the deferred dismantling option 11.6 Preparatory activities 11.7 Management of a safe enclosure/entombment period 11.8 National approaches and international guidance 11.9 Challenges and lessons learned 11.10 Future trends 11.11 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 12: Dismantling and demolition processes and technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects Abstract: 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Thermal cutting techniques 12.3 Mechanical cutting techniques 12.4 Factors affecting selection of cutting processes and technology 12.5 Cutting versus intact handling of large components 12.6 Demolition of buildings 12.7 Application of specific cutting techniques: pros and cons 12.8 Challenges and lessons learned 12.9 Emerging techniques and future trends 12.10 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 13: Decontamination processes and technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects Abstract: 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Why and when to decontaminate 13.3 Decontamination of metals 13.4 Decontamination of building surfaces 13.5 Factors affecting selection of decontamination processes and technology 13.6 Application of specific decontamination techniques: pros and cons 13.7 Challenges and lessons learned 13.8 Emerging techniques and future trends 13.9 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 14: Remote operation and robotics technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects Abstract: 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Remote operation and robotics: definitions and principles 14.3 Development and application of remotely operated and robotics technologies in decommissioning 14.4 Challenges and lessons learned 14.5 Future trends 14.6 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 15: Radioactive waste management in nuclear decommissioning projects Abstract: 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Spent fuel removal as a prerequisite to decommissioning 15.3 Airborne, waterborne and solid waste from decommissioning: amounts and characterization 15.4 Ventilation and filtration requirements for airborne waste 15.5 Management of liquid waste including decontamination solutions 15.6 Solid waste characterization and segregation for onward processing 15.7 Recycling/reuse and clearance processes 15.8 Waste management and disposal in decommissioning projects 15.9 Challenges and lessons learned 15.10 Future trends 15.11 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 16: Environmental remediation and restoration technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects Abstract: 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Environmental restoration process 16.3 Types of site remediation techniques and technologies applicable in nuclear decommissioning 16.4 Ex situ remediation techniques and technologies 16.5 In situ treatment technologies 16.6 Remediation of contaminated groundwater 16.7 Disposal of radioactive wastes from remediation 16.8 Challenges 16.9 Lessons learned 16.10 Future trends 16.11 Conclusions Chapter 17: Site clearance and licence termination in nuclear decommissioning projects Abstract: 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Regulatory approaches for site clearance and licence termination 17.3 A process for site clearance and licence termination 17.4 Challenges and lessons learned 17.5 Future trends Chapter 18: Reuse and redevelopment of decommissioned nuclear sites: strategies and lessons learned Abstract: 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Site redevelopment as an integral part of a facility's lifecycle 18.3 Early planning for redevelopment 18.4 Policy issues in planning for redevelopment 18.5 Management issues 18.6 Technical issues 18.7 Social issues 18.8 Operating experience in reuse of decommissioned sites 18.9 The non-nuclear sector 18.10 Future trends Part III: International experience: nuclear decommissioning applications and case studies Chapter 19: Decommissioning of Western-type light-water nuclear reactors (LWRs) Abstract: 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Types of materials and decommissioning issues 19.3 Decommissioning technologies for major components of light-water reactors (LWRs) 19.4 Specific LWR reactor vessel (RV) internals segmentation experience in the USA 19.5 Specific LWR RV disposition experience in the USA 19.6 Major components dismantling 19.7 Decommissioning technologies for LWR buildings and structures 19.8 Site remediation and reuse in the USA 19.9 Challenges and lessons learned 19.10 Future trends Chapter 20: Decommissioning of Russian-type water-cooled water-moderated nuclear reactors (WWERs) Abstract: 20.1 Introduction 20.2 WWER-specific features relevant to decommissioning 20.3 Planning and implementation of WWER decommissioning 20.4 Decommissioning technologies for WWER activated components (RPV and internals) 20.5 Decommissioning technologies for WWER building structures 20.6 Decommissioning waste (material) management 20.7 Challenges and lessons learned 20.9 Appendix Chapter 21: Decommissioning of gas-cooled nuclear reactors (GCRs) Abstract: 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Types of materials and aspects of their decommissioning 21.3 Decommissioning strategies for gas-cooled reactors (GCRs) 21.4 Decommissioning technologies for GCR containment components 21.5 Application of particular techniques to GCR decommissioning projects 21.6 Challenges and lessons learned 21.7 Future trends 21.8 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 22: Decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities Abstract: 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities 22.3 Decommissioning strategies and plans 22.4 Decommissioning phases 22.5 Specific issues in decommissioning of NFC facilities 22.6 Decommissioning techniques for NFC facilities 22.7 Demolition techniques 22.8 Challenges and lessons learned 22.9 Future trends 22.10 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 23: Decommissioning of small nuclear facilities: industrial, medical and research facilities Abstract: 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Types of facilities 23.3 Planning and management 23.4 Application of particular techniques 23.5 Waste management 23.6 Challenges and lessons learned 23.7 Future trends 23.8 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 24: Decommissioning of legacy nuclear waste sites: Dounreay, UK Abstract: 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Decommissioning programme 24.3 High-hazard decommissioning projects 24.4 High-alpha-contaminated facilities decommissioning 24.5 Pond decommissioning 24.6 Fuel production and reprocessing facilities decommissioning 24.7 Cells and laboratories decommissioning 24.8 Legacy waste facilities 24.9 Fuels management 24.10 Infrastructure decommissioning 24.11 Waste management 24.12 Environmental restoration 24.13 Future challenges Chapter 25: Decommissioning of legacy nuclear waste sites: Idaho National Laboratory, USA Abstract: 25.1 Introduction 25.2 Types of materials and decommissioning issues 25.3 Waste retrieval and decontamination processes 25.4 Application of appropriate decommissioning technologies 25.5 Environmental restoration and site clearance: case studies 25.6 Challenges and lessons learned 25.7 Future trends 25.8 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 26: Information management for nuclear decommissioning projects Abstract: 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Importance of information management in decommissioning 26.3 Key decommissioning information 26.4 Records and information management and preservation 26.5 Knowledge management in decommissioning 26.6 Challenges and lessons learned 26.7 Future trends 26.8 Sources of further information and advice Index

About the Author

Dr Michele (Mike) Laraia is a private consultant and a former Unit Leader, IAEA Waste Technology Section (1991-2011), responsible for nuclear facility decommissioning and environmental remediation. He is internationally renowned for his work in managing technical co-operation projects and developing technical publications, conferences and seminars.


An unprecedented book covering every technically important decommissioning field, written by international decommissioning leaders., Dr Takeshi Ishikura, Executive Research Fellow, Nuclear Power Engineering Center (NUPEC), The Institute of Applied Energy (IAE), Japan This book provides an essential framework for all decommissioning key activities, enriched and illustrated by practical case studies. I will keep it within easy reach in my bookshelf., Dr Hans G. Riotte, Head, Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Management Division, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), France This excellent book describes the entire process of decommissioning, from planning to management to completion, in a clear and comprehensive manner. I found the detailed examples of successful projects and best practice particularly helpful., Shelly Mobbs, Eden Nuclear and Environment, UK

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