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On Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 What's in a name . . .UAV or UAS?.- 1.2 Motivation and Rationale.- 1.3 On Regulating Safety.- 1.4 Book Objectives and Outline.- References.- 2 Aviation History and Unmanned Flight.- 2.1 Precursors of Flight and Unmanned Aircraft.- 2.2 1916-1944.- 2.3 The Machines of the Cold War.- 2.4 Modern Systems.- 2.5 Remarks.- References.- 3 Current Manned Aviation Regulation.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Airworthiness Certification.- 3.2.1 Type Certificate.- 3.2.2 Standard Certificates.- 3.2.3 Special Certificates.- 3.3 Special Aircraft Categories.- 3.3.1 Vehicles.- 3.3.2 R/C Models.- 3.4 Pilot Certification.- 3.5 FAR Operation Rules.- 3.5.1 Flight Rules.- 3.5.2 Emergency Rules.- 3.5.3 Maintenance Requirements.- 3.6 Airspace Classes.- 3.7 Regulation Development Models.- References.- 4 Unmanned Aircraft Systems Regulation.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 International Civil Aviation Organization.- 4.3 United States.- 4.3.1 RTCA.- 4.3.2 ASTM.- 4.3.3 SAE.- 4.3.4 Current Certification Paths and Operational Guidelines.- 4.4 Europe.- 4.4.1 EASA.- 4.4.2 EUROCONTROL.- 4.4.3 EUROCAE.- 4.4.4 Other European Union Activities.- 4.4.5 National Activities.- 4.5 Australia.- 4.6 Canada.- 4.7 Japan.- 4.8 International UAS Associations.- 4.9 Light and Small UAS.- 4.9.1 United States.- 4.9.2 Europe.- 4.10 Military Regulations.- 4.10.1 United States.- 4.10.2 Europe.- 4.10.3 NATO.- References.- 5 UAS Safety Assessment and Functional Requirements.- 5.1 Equivalent Level of Safety.- 5.1.1 Manned Aviation Requirements.- 5.1.2 Derivation of an ELOS for UAS.- 5.2 UAS Accident Types.- 5.3 Ground Impact Fatality Risk Modeling.- 5.3.1 Ground Impact ELOS.- 5.3.2 Exposure to Ground Impact Accidents.- 5.3.3 Probability of Fatality of Exposed Persons.- 5.3.4 Frequency of Ground Impact Accidents.- 5.4 Mid-air Collision Fatality Risk Modeling.- 5.4.1 Mid-air Collision ELOS.- 5.4.2 Exposure and Risk of Fatality.- 5.4.3 Conflicting Trajectory Expectation.- 5.4.4 Collision Probability.- 5.5 Model Choice.- 5.6 Translating an Accident TLS to System Reliability Requirements.- 5.7 Risk Mitigation.- References 6 Case Studies ..- References.- 7 Thoughts and Recommendations on a UAS Integration Roadmap.- 7.1 Regulation Development.- 7.1.1 Applications.- 7.1.2 Flight Characteristics.- 7.1.3 Sacrificability.- 7.1.4 Pilot Physically Removed from Cockpit.- 7.1.5 UAS as Systems.- 7.1.6 Take-off Weight.- 7.1.7 Passengers and Cargo.- 7.1.8 Payload ..- 7.1.9 Operational Security.- 7.2 Operational Risk Reference System.- 7.3 UAS Classification.- 7.3.1 Classification Based on Ground Impact Risk.- 7.3.2 Classification Based on Mid-air Collision Risk.- 7.3.3 Classification Based on Autonomy.- 7.3.4 Other Classifications.- 7.4 Certification Paths.- 7.5 Equipment Certification.- 7.6 Operator Training and Certification.- 7.7 Technology Issues.- 7.7.1 Collision Avoidance.- 7.7.2 Sensors.- 7.7.3 Communications.- 7.7.4 Power and Propulsion Systems.- 7.7.5 Launch, Recovery and Flight Termination Systems.- 7.8 Technology Testing and Evaluation.- References.- 8 Epilogue.- 8.1 Why UAS?.- 8.2 UAS for Military Applications and Related Challenges.- 8.3 UAS for Civilian Applications: Challenges and Issues.- 8.4 Challenges, Enabling Technologies.- 8.5 The Road Ahead.- References.- Glossary.- References.- A Human Vulnerability.- A.1 Injury Types and Severity.- A.2 Vulnerability Modeling Considerations.- A.3 Vulnerability Models.- A.3.1 Vulnerability Thresholds.- A.3.2 Log-normal Vulnerability Models.- A.3.3 The Viscous Criterion (VC) and the Blunt Criterion (BC).- A.3.4 Penetrating Injuries.- References.- B Ground fatality probability model sensitivity analysis.- B.1 Background.- B.2 Analysis.- B.2.1 Kinetic Energy at Impact Results.- B.2.2 Parameter a Results.- B.2.3 Sheltering Factor Results.- B.3 Discussion.- References.- C UAS Reference.- Index.

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