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Petroleum Refining
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Table of Contents

Introduction
Refinery Processes and Operations
Historic Overview
Product Demand and Supply
U.S. Statistics
World Statistics
Industry Characteristics
Refinery Economics
Cost Estimation
Refinery Complexity
Refinery Flow Scheme and Chapter Outline

Refinery Products
Low-Boiling Products
Gasoline
Gasoline Specifications
Distillate Fuels
Residual Fuel Oils

Refinery Feedstocks
Crude Oil Properties
Composition of Petroleum
Crudes Suitable for Asphalt Manufacture

Crude Distillation
Desalting Crude Oils
Atmospheric Topping Unit
Vacuum Distillation
Auxiliary Equipment
Crude Distillation Unit Products
Case-Study Problem: Crude Units

Coking and Thermal Processes
Types, Properties, and Uses of Petroleum Coke
Process Description-Delayed Coking
Operation-Delayed Coking
Process Description-Flexicoking
Process Description-Fluid Coking
Yields from Flexicoking and Fluid Coking
Capital Costs and Utilities for Flexicoking and Fluid Coking
Visbreaking
Case-Study Problem: Delayed Coker

Catalytic Cracking
Fluidized Bed Catalytic Cracking
New Designs for Fluidized Bed Catalytic Cracking Units
Cracking Reactions
Cracking of Paraffins
Olefin Cracking
Cracking of Naphthenic Hydrocarbons
Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cracking
Cracking Catalysts
FCC Feed Pretreating
Process Variables
Heat Recovery
Yield Estimation
Capital and Operating Costs
Case-Study Problem: Catalytic Cracker

Catalytic Hydrocracking
Hydrocracking Reactions
Feed Preparation
The Hydrocracking Process
Hydrocracking Catalyst
Process Variables
Hydrocracking Yields
Investment and Operating Costs
Modes of Hydrocracker Operation
Case-Study Problem: Hydrocracker

Hydroprocessing and Resid Processing
Composition of Vacuum Tower Bottoms
Processing Options
Hydroprocessing
Expanded-Bed Hydrocracking Processes
Moving-Bed Hydroprocessors
Solvent Extraction
Summary of Resid Processing Operations

Hydrotreating
Hydrotreating Catalysts
Aromatics Reduction
Reactions
Process Variables
Construction and Operating Costs
Case-Study Problem: Hydrotreaters
Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization
Reactions
Feed Preparation
Catalytic Reforming Processes
Reforming Catalyst
Reactor Design
Yields and Costs
Isomerization
Capital and Operating Costs
Isomerization Yields
Case-Study Problem: Naphtha Hydrotreater, Catalytic Reformer, and Isomerization Unit
Alkylation and Polymerization
Alkylation Reactions
Process Variables
Alkylation Feedstocks
Alkylation Products
Catalysts
Hydrofluoric Acid Processes
Sulfuric Acid Alkylation Processes
Comparison of Processes
Alkylation Yields and Costs
Safety Issues
Polymerization
Case-Study Problem: Alkylation and Polymerization
Product Blending
Reid Vapor Pressure
Octane Blending
Blending for Other Properties
Case-Study Problem: Gasoline Blending
Octane Calculations for Pool Gasoline
Case-Study Problem: Diesel and Jet Fuel Blending
Supporting Processes
Hydrogen Production and Purification
Gas Processing Unit
Acid Gas Removal
Sulfur Recovery Processes
Ecological Considerations in Petroleum Refining
Wastewater Treatment
Control of Atmospheric Pollution
Noise Level Control
Case-Study Problem: Saturated Gas Recovery, Amine, and Sulfur Recovery Units
Refinery Economics and Planning
Linear Programming Overview
Refinery Linear Programming Models
Economics and Planning Applications
Lubricating Oil Blending Stocks
Lube Oil Processing
Propane Deasphalting
Viscosity Index Improvement and Solvent Extraction
Viscosity Index Improvement and Hydrocracking
Dewaxing
Hydrofinishing
Finishing by Clay Contacting
Environmental Impacts
Petrochemical Feedstocks
Aromatics Production
Unsaturate Production
Saturated Paraffins
Additives Production from Refinery Feedstocks
Use of Alcohols and Ethers
Ether Production Reactions
Ether Production Processes
Yields
Costs for Ether Production
Production of Isobutylene
Commercial Dehydrogenation Processes
Houdry's CATOFIN
ConocoPhillips Petroleum's Star
UOP LLC OLEFLEX
Snamprogetti Yarsintez Process
Costs to Produce Isobutylene from Isobutane
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists Nomenclature
Isooctene and Isooctane Production
Cost Estimation
Rule-of-Thumb Estimates
Cost-Curve Estimates
Major Equipment Factor Estimates
Definitive Estimates
Summary Form for Cost Estimates
Storage Facilities
Land and Storage Requirements
Steam Systems
Cooling Water Systems
Other Utility Systems
Application of Cost Estimation Techniques
Economic Evaluation
Definitions
Return on Original Investment
Payout Time
Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return
Case-Study Problem: Economic Evaluation
Case-Study Problem: Economic Solution
Appendix A: Definitions of Refining Terms
Appendix B: Physical Properties
Appendix C: U.S. Bureau of Mines Routine Analyses of Selected Crude Oils
Appendix D: Economic Evaluation Example Problem
Appendix E: Photographs
Index

*Most chapters include Problems, Notes, and Additional Reading sections

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