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Physical Dimensions of Aging-2e
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Table of Contents

Part I. An Introduction to AgingChapter 1. Quantity and Quality of Life
What Is Aging?
How Is Aging Described?
What Causes Aging?
Can the Aging Process Be Slowed?
How Does Physical Aging Affect the Quality of Life?
Quality of Life Components
Health and Fitness Contributions in Different Age Categories
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested ReadingsChapter 2. Individual Differences
Assessment of Individual Differences
Sources of Individual Differences
How Research Design Affects Our View of Individual Differences
Can the Process of Studying People Influence Individual Differences?
Biological Age
Importance of Individual Differences in Understanding Aging Research
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested ReadingsPart II. Physical Changes in Structure, Capacity, and EnduranceChapter 3. Physical Development and Decline
Changes in Body Shape
Changes in Body Composition
Changes in Bone
Coping With the Interface of Aging Bones, Muscles, and Tendons
Skin: Taking the Brunt of the Environment for Years
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested ReadingsChapter 4. Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Function
Aging Effects on the Cardiovascular System
Aging Effects on the Respiratory System
Preventing or Postponing Aging Effects on the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested ReadingsChapter 5. Muscular Strength and Power
Strength and Power
Changes in Muscular Strength With Age
Why Strength Decreases With Age
Resistance Training for Strength
Muscular Power
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested ReadingPart III. Motor Coordination, Motor Control, and SkillChapter 6. Balance and Posture
Defining the Multiple Dimensions of Balance
Theoretical Framework of Balance and Mobility
Intrinsic Systems Contributing to Balance and Mobility
Age-Associated Changes in the Systems Contributing to Balance and Mobility
Posture
Evaluating the Multiple Dimensions of Balance
Locomotion
Age-Associated Changes in Gait
Measuring Gain
Falling-When Balance Fails
Can Falling in the Elderly Be Prevented?
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested ReadingsChapter 7. Behavioral Speed
Response Speed
Age-Sensitive Factors That Affect Response Speed
Reaction Time and Variability
Other Factors Influencing Speed of Processing
Theories of Response Slowing
Neurobiological Explanations of Age-Related Slowing
Movement Speed
Functional Significance of Behavioral Speed
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested ReadingsChapter 8. Motor Control, Coordination, and Skill
Definitions of Coordination, Control, and Learning
Age-Related Sensorimotor Changes That Affect Coordination and Control
Theoretical Strategies to Explain Coordination, Control, and Learning
How Coordination and Control Are Accomplished
Upper Limb and Hand Control
Aging Effects on Two Important Tasks: Driving and Handwriting
Learning Physical Skills
Mechanisms of Learning: Neural Plasticity
Compensatory Strategies for Losses of Coordination
Psychological and Emotional Factors That Influence Coordination and Learning
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested ReadingsPart IV. Physical-Psychosocial RelationshipsChapter 9. Health, Exercise, and Cognitive Function
Concepts of Physical Activity, Health and Fitness, and Cognitive Function
Health and Physical Activity Effects on Cognitive Function
Mechanisms by Which Physical Activity May Benefit Cognition
Process by Which Fitness May Benefit Cognitive Function
Implications of a Physical Activity-Cognition Relationship for Older Adults
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested ReadingChapter 10. Health-Related Quality of Life
Quality of Life
Well-Being
Physical Function, Physical Activity, Fitness, and Exercise
Influence of Exercise on Well-Being
Characteristics of Exercise Related to Well-Being
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested ReadingsPart V. Physical Performance and AchievementChapter 11. Physical Function of Older Adults
Definitions of Physical Function
Hierarchy of Physical Function in Older Adults
Determining Physical Function in the Elderly
Role of Physical Activity in Postponing Disability and Facilitating Independent Living
Exercise Interventions and Physical Function
Expectations for Physical Performance of the Old and Oldest-Old
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested ReadingsChapter 12. Physically Elite Older Adults
Who Are the "Physically Elite" Older Adults?
Masters Athletes
Studying the Elite Physical Performance of Masters Athletes
Masters Athletes' Record Performances
Estimating Age-Related Changes in Physiological Function Capacity
Nonphysiological Factors That Influence Maximum Sport Performance
Social Support Systems and the Positive Secular Trend
How Do They Do It?
Key Terms
Review Questions
Suggested Readings

About the Author

Waneen W. Spirduso, EdD, is the Oscar and Anne Mauzy Regents Professor in the department of kinesiology and health education at The University of Texas (UT) at Austin. She was chair of the UT (Austin) department of kinesiology and health education for 14 years and served as interim dean of the College of Education for 2-1/2 years. Since 1975 her academic interests, research, and presentations have focused on issues central to gerontology and kinesiology, and her research programs have been sponsored by four of the National Institutes of Health and several local foundations.

A widely published author, Dr. Spirduso is also a popular speaker at conferences across the United States. She is the recipient of many honors and awards, including recognition as the Texas Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Scholar in 1986 and the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Scholar (AAHPERD) in 1987. She served two terms as president of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) and one term as president of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education (AAKPE).

Dr. Spirduso is a Fellow of the Gerontological Society of America, and a member of AAHPERD, ACSM, and AAKPE.Karen L. Francis, PhD, is an assistant professor in the department of exercise and sport science at the University of San Francisco. She received her master's degree and PhD in motor control and learning and a doctoral portfolio in gerontology from the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Francis' primary research interest is in the loss of hand motor control that occurs with aging. She is a member of the Gerontological Society of America, the Society for Neuroscience, and the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity.Priscilla Gilliam MacRae, PhD, is professor of sports medicine and director of the Motor Behavior Laboratory at Pepperdine University. She received her MS from the University of Arizona and her PhD from the University of Texas at Austin. She completed postdoctoral training at the University of Southern California. MacRae has published 38 research articles and book chapters, presented in national and international meetings, and received the Harriet and Charles Luckman Distinguished Teaching Award from Pepperdine University. Her research has been funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), AARP Andrus Foundation, Jewish Homes for the Aging, California Physical Therapy Association, and Pepperdine University. Dr. MacRae is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and a member of the Southwest Chapter of ACSM, the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD), the Society for Neuroscience, and the Gerontological Society of America. Dr. MacRae's research focuses on effects of exercise on physiological and psychological aspects of aging. Her current research focuses on how older adults acquire new motor skills, including changes in older adults' ability to control force in a visuomotor tasks that involve precision and speed. Her research populations have included older adults at many levels of function, from elite female marathoners to nursing-home residents.

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