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Physical Principles of Electron Microscopy
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Table of Contents

Dedication Preface x 1. An Introduction to Microscopy 1 1.1 Limitations of the Human Eye 1 1.2 The Light-Optical Microscope 5 1.3 The X-ray Microscope 9 1.4 The Transmission Electron Microscope 11 1.5 The Scanning Electron Microscope 17 1.6 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope 19 1.7 Analytical Electron Microscopy 21 1.8 Scanning-Probe Microscopes 21 2. Electron Optics 27 2.1 Properties of an Ideal Image 27 2.2 Imaging in Light Optics 30 2.3 Imaging with Electrons 34 2.4 Focusing Properties of a Thin Magnetic Lens 41 2.5 Comparison of Magnetic and Electrostatic Lenses 43 2.6 Defects of Electron Lenses 44 3. The Transmission Electron Microscope 57 3.1 The Electron Gun 58 3.2 Electron Acceleration 66 3.3 Condenser-Lens System 70 3.4 The Specimen Stage 75 3.5 TEM Imaging System 78 3.6 Vacuum System 88 4. TEM Specimens and Images 93 4.1 Kinematics of Scattering by an Atomic Nucleus 94 4.2 Electron-Electron Scattering 96 4.3 The Dynamics of Scattering 97 4.4 Scattering Contrast from Amorphous Specimens 100 4.5 Diffraction Contrast from Polycrystalline Specimens 106 4.6 Dark-Field Images 108 4.7 Electron-Diffraction Patterns 108 4.8 Diffraction Contrast within a Single Crystal 112 4.9 Phase Contrast in the TEM 115 4.10 TEM Specimen Preparation 119 5. The Scanning Electron Microscope 125 5.1 Operating Principle of the SEM 125 5.2 Penetration of Electrons into a Solid 129 5.3 Secondary-Electron Images 131 5.4 Backscattered-Electron Images 137 5.5 Other SEM Imaging Modes 139 5.6 SEM Operating Conditions 143 5.7 SEM Specimen Preparation 147 5.8 The Environmental SEM 149 5.9 Electron-Beam Lithography 151 6. Analytical Electron Microscopy 155 6.1 The Bohr Model of the Atom 155 6.2 X-ray Emission Spectroscopy 158 6.3 X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy 161 6.4 Quantitative Analysis in the TEM 165 6.5 Quantitative Analysis in the SEM 167 6.6 X-Ray Wavelength-Dispersive Spectroscopy 168 6.7 Comparison of XEDS and XWDS Analysis 169 6.8 Auger Electron Spectroscopy 171 6.9 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy 172 7. Recent Developments 179 7.1 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy 179 7.2 Aberration Correction 182 7.3 Electron-Beam Monochromators 184 7.4 Electron Holography 186 Appendix: Mathematical Derivations 191 A.1 The Schottky Effect 179 A.2 Impact Parameter in Rutherford Scattering 182 References 195 Index 197

Reviews

From the reviews:

"This book comprises a concise introduction to the fundamental physical concepts of electron microscopy and related analytical techniques ... . The concepts are well explained and illustrated, and in addition, the author offers a helpful introduction to microscopy, as a whole ... . The text includes interesting historical tidbits and also alludes to more recent developments ... . It is suitable for institutional or personal purchase." (Andreas Holzenburg, Microbiology Today, July, 2006)

"R.F. Egerton ... has now written a short book for beginners on electron microscopy in general: Physical Principles of Electron Microscopy, an Introduction to TEM, SEM, and AEM[10]. ... Extremely simple language is used throughout and newcomers to the subject will be grateful for this text, designed to accompany a one-semester undergraduate course." (P. W. Hawkes, Ultramicroscopy, Vol. 107 (54), 2007)

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