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Physical and Physiological Forest Ecology
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Contents1. Introduction to Physical, Physiological and Causal Forest Ecology 2. The Approach to Construct and Test the Theory of Forest Ecology3. Environmental Factors3.1 Properties of Environment3.2 Diurnal Cycle in Environmental Factors3.3 Annual Cycle of Environmental Factors3.4 Environmental Factors Inside a CanopyAnnex: Annual Cycle of Radiation4. Processes in Living Structures4.1 Structure of Vegetation4.1.1 Cellular Level4.1.2 Tissues4.1.3 Organs4.1.4 Individual4.1.5 Stand4.2 Vegetation Processes4.2.1 Annual Cycle of Processes4.2.2 Photosynthesis and Transpiration4.2.3 Respiration4.2.4 Senescence4.2.5 Uptake of Water and Nutrients by Roots4.2.6 Bud Burst Phenology4.2.7 Shoot Elongation4.2.8 Nox Exchange of Needles4.3 Structure of Forest Soil4.3.1 Mineral Soil4.3.2 Soil Organic Matter4.3.3 Soil Structure, Water and Air4.3.4 Soil Organisms4.3.5 Soil Horizons and Distribution4.4 Processes in Soil4.4.1 General Considerations About Processes in Soil4.4.2 Ion Exchange and Retention4.4.3 Decomposition of Soil Organic Matter4.4.4 Nitrogen Processes in Soil4.5 Forest AnimalsAnnex: Transport5. Fluxes of Carbon, Water and Nutrients5.1 Water and Sugar Transport in Trees5.1.1 Introduction5.1.2 Upward Flow of Water in Xylem5.1.3 Assimilate Transport in Phloem5.2 Water Dynamics in Forest Soil5.3 Carbon Dioxide in Soil5.4 Co2, Water Vapour and Energy Fluxes Between Forest Ecosystem and Atmosphere5.4.1 Structural, Metabolic and Physical Background of the Fluxes5.4.2 Processes Generating Co2 and Water Vapour Fluxes Between Ecosystems and the Atmosphere5.4.3 Co2 and Water Vapour Fluxes Between Forest Ecosystem and the Atmosphere5.4.4 Energy Fluxes Within and Over Forest5.5 Statistical Analysis of the Daily Photosynthetic Production of Coniferous Canopies Consistent with Process Knowledge5.6 Annual Energy, Carbon, Nitrogen, Water and Ion Fluxes and Amounts at SMEAR II6. Structural Regularities in Trees6.1 Functional Basis of the Regularities in Tree Structure6.2 Tree Structure as Balanced Water Transport System6.3 Nitrogen Concentration in Leaves, Wood and Fine Roots in Scots Pine7. Dynamics of Carbon and Nitrogen Fluxes and Pools in Forest Ecosystem7.1 Structural, Metabolic and Evolutionary Basis of Ecosystem Development7.2 Quantification of Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics: Ecosystem Model Microforest7.2.1 Trees7.2.2 Growth of Ground Vegetation7.2.3 Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Soil7.2.4 Connections Between Trees, Ground Vegetation and Soil7.3 Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Forest Ecosystem Around SMEAR II7.3.1 Field Measurements7.3.2 Parameter Values7.3.3 Simulation of the Forest Ecosystem Around SMEAR II7.3.4 Evaluation of the Simulations At SMEAR II7.4 Test of Microforest Against Data On Tree Growth7.4.1 First Test of Microforest7.4.2 Second Test of MicroforestAnnex: List of Parameter Values and Units in MicroForestAnnex: List of Variables in MicroForest Model8. How to Utilize The Knowledge of Causal Responses?8.1 Applications to Forestry8.1.1 The Effect Thinnings On Wood Production8.1.2 The Effect of Whole Tree Harvesting On The Site Fertility8.1.3 The Effect of Nitrogen Deposition On Forest Production8.2 Climate Change and Forests8.2.1 Physical Background of Climate Change8.2.2 Mechanisms of Climate Change8.2.3 Observed and Projected Changes in Climate8.2.4 Responses of Forest Ecosystems to Climate Change8.2.5 Response of Boreal Forests to Climate Change8.2.6 Feedback from Forests to Climate Change9. Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations - SMEAR10. The Physical and Physiological Theory of Forest Ecology and its EvaluationIndex

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