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Physical and Physiological Forest Ecology
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Table of Contents

Contents

1. Introduction to Physical, Physiological and Causal Forest Ecology

2. The Approach to Construct and Test the Theory of Forest Ecology

3. Environmental Factors

3.1 Properties of Environment

3.2 Diurnal Cycle in Environmental Factors

3.3 Annual Cycle of Environmental Factors

3.4 Environmental Factors Inside a Canopy

Annex: Annual Cycle of Radiation

4. Processes in Living Structures

4.1 Structure of Vegetation

4.1.1 Cellular Level

4.1.2 Tissues

4.1.3 Organs

4.1.4 Individual

4.1.5 Stand

4.2 Vegetation Processes

4.2.1 Annual Cycle of Processes

4.2.2 Photosynthesis and Transpiration

4.2.3 Respiration

4.2.4 Senescence

4.2.5 Uptake of Water and Nutrients by Roots

4.2.6 Bud Burst Phenology

4.2.7 Shoot Elongation

4.2.8 Nox Exchange of Needles

4.3 Structure of Forest Soil

4.3.1 Mineral Soil

4.3.2 Soil Organic Matter

4.3.3 Soil Structure, Water and Air

4.3.4 Soil Organisms

4.3.5 Soil Horizons and Distribution

4.4 Processes in Soil

4.4.1 General Considerations About Processes in Soil

4.4.2 Ion Exchange and Retention

4.4.3 Decomposition of Soil Organic Matter

4.4.4 Nitrogen Processes in Soil

4.5 Forest Animals

Annex: Transport

5. Fluxes of Carbon, Water and Nutrients

5.1 Water and Sugar Transport in Trees

5.1.1 Introduction

5.1.2 Upward Flow of Water in Xylem

5.1.3 Assimilate Transport in Phloem

5.2 Water Dynamics in Forest Soil

5.3 Carbon Dioxide in Soil

5.4 Co2, Water Vapour and Energy Fluxes Between Forest Ecosystem and Atmosphere

5.4.1 Structural, Metabolic and Physical Background of the Fluxes

5.4.2 Processes Generating Co2 and Water Vapour Fluxes Between Ecosystems and the Atmosphere

5.4.3 Co2 and Water Vapour Fluxes Between Forest Ecosystem and the Atmosphere

5.4.4 Energy Fluxes Within and Over Forest

5.5 Statistical Analysis of the Daily Photosynthetic Production of Coniferous Canopies Consistent with Process Knowledge

5.6 Annual Energy, Carbon, Nitrogen, Water and Ion Fluxes and Amounts at SMEAR II

6. Structural Regularities in Trees

6.1 Functional Basis of the Regularities in Tree Structure

6.2 Tree Structure as Balanced Water Transport System

6.3 Nitrogen Concentration in Leaves, Wood and Fine Roots in Scots Pine

7. Dynamics of Carbon and Nitrogen Fluxes and Pools in Forest Ecosystem

7.1 Structural, Metabolic and Evolutionary Basis of Ecosystem Development

7.2 Quantification of Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics: Ecosystem Model Microforest

7.2.1 Trees

7.2.2 Growth of Ground Vegetation

7.2.3 Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Soil

7.2.4 Connections Between Trees, Ground Vegetation and Soil

7.3 Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Forest Ecosystem Around SMEAR II

7.3.1 Field Measurements

7.3.2 Parameter Values

7.3.3 Simulation of the Forest Ecosystem Around SMEAR II

7.3.4 Evaluation of the Simulations At SMEAR II

7.4 Test of Microforest Against Data On Tree Growth

7.4.1 First Test of Microforest

7.4.2 Second Test of Microforest

Annex: List of Parameter Values and Units in MicroForest

Annex: List of Variables in MicroForest Model

8. How to Utilize The Knowledge of Causal Responses?

8.1 Applications to Forestry

8.1.1 The Effect Thinnings On Wood Production

8.1.2 The Effect of Whole Tree Harvesting On The Site Fertility

8.1.3 The Effect of Nitrogen Deposition On Forest Production

8.2 Climate Change and Forests

8.2.1 Physical Background of Climate Change

8.2.2 Mechanisms of Climate Change

8.2.3 Observed and Projected Changes in Climate

8.2.4 Responses of Forest Ecosystems to Climate Change

8.2.5 Response of Boreal Forests to Climate Change

8.2.6 Feedback from Forests to Climate Change

9. Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations - SMEAR

10. The Physical and Physiological Theory of Forest Ecology and its Evaluation

Index

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