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Physics
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction and Mathematical Concepts 1 1.1 The Nature of Physics 1 1.2 Units 1 1.3 The Role of Units in Problem Solving 3 1.4 Trigonometry 6 1.5 Scalars and Vectors 8 1.6 Vector Addition and Subtraction 10 1.7 The Components of a Vector 12 1.8 Addition of Vectors by Means of Components 15 CONCEPT SUMMARY 18 2 Kinematics in One Dimension 26 2.1 Displacement 26 2.2 Speed and Velocity 27 2.3 Acceleration 29 2.4 Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration 33 2.5 Applications of the Equations of Kinematics 36 2.6 Freely Falling Bodies 40 2.7 Graphical Analysis of Velocity and Acceleration 44 CONCEPT SUMMARY 46 3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions 54 3.1 Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration 54 3.2 Equations of Kinematics in Two Dimensions 55 3.3 Projectile Motion 59 3.4 Relative Velocity 67 CONCEPT SUMMARY 71 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion 79 4.1 The Concepts of Force and Mass 79 4.2 Newton s First Law of Motion 79 4.3 Newton s Second Law of Motion 81 4.4 The Vector Nature of Newton s Second Law of Motion 84 4.5 Newton s Third Law of Motion 85 4.6 Types of Forces: An Overview 86 4.7 The Gravitational Force 87 4.8 The Normal Force 91 4.9 Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces 94 4.10 The Tension Force 100 4.11 Equilibrium Applications of Newton s Laws of Motion 101 4.12 Nonequilibrium Applications of Newton s Laws of Motion 105 CONCEPT SUMMARY 110 5 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 121 5.1 Uniform Circular Motion 121 5.2 Centripetal Acceleration 122 5.3 Centripetal Force 125 5.4 Banked Curves 128 5.5 Satellites in Circular Orbits 129 5.6 Apparent Weightlessness and Artifi cial Gravity 133 5.7 Vertical Circular Motion 135 CONCEPT SUMMARY 136 6 Work and Energy 142 6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force 142 6.2 The Work Energy Theorem and Kinetic Energy 145 6.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 152 6.4 Conservative Versus Nonconservative Forces 154 6.5 The Conservation of Mechanical Energy 156 6.6 Nonconservative Forces and the Work Energy Theorem 159 6.7 Power 160 6.8 Other Forms of Energy and the Conservation of Energy 162 6.9 Work Done by a Variable Force 162 CONCEPT SUMMARY 164 7 Impulse and Momentum 173 7.1 The Impulse Momentum Theorem 173 7.2 The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum 177 7.3 Collisions in One Dimension 182 7.4 Collisions in Two Dimensions 187 7.5 Center of Mass 187 CONCEPT SUMMARY 189 8 Rotational Kinematics 197 8.1 Rotational Motion and Angular Displacement 197 8.2 Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration 200 8.3 The Equations of Rotational Kinematics 202 8.4 Angular Variables and Tangential Variables 204 8.5 Centripetal Acceleration and Tangential Acceleration 206 8.6 Rolling Motion 209 8.7 The Vector Nature of Angular Variables 210 CONCEPT SUMMARY 210 9 Rotational Dynamics 218 9.1 The Action of Forces and Torques on Rigid Objects 218 9.2 Rigid Objects in Equilibrium 220 9.3 Center of Gravity 225 9.4 Newton s Second Law for Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis 230 9.5 Rotational Work and Energy 236 9.6 Angular Momentum 239 CONCEPT SUMMARY 241 10 Simple Harmonic Motion and Elasticity 251 10.1 The Ideal Spring and Simple Harmonic Motion 251 10.2 Simple Harmonic Motion and the Reference Circle 255 10.3 Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion 260 10.4 The Pendulum 263 10.5 Damped Harmonic Motion 266 10.6 Driven Harmonic Motion and Resonance 267 10.7 Elastic Deformation 268 10.8 Stress, Strain, and Hooke s Law 271 CONCEPT SUMMARY 272 11 Fluids 281 11.1 Mass Density 281 11.2 Pressure 282 11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid 284 11.4 Pressure Gauges 287 11.5 Pascal s Principle 288 11.6 Archimedes Principle 291 11.7 Fluids in Motion 295 11.8 The Equation of Continuity 297 11.9 Bernoulli s Equation 299 11.10 Applications of Bernoulli s Equation 301 11.11 Viscous Flow 304 CONCEPT SUMMARY 306 12 Temperature and Heat 316 12.1 Common Temperature Scales 316 12.2 The Kelvin Temperature Scale 317 12.3 Thermometers 318 12.4 Linear Thermal Expansion 320 12.5 Volume Thermal Expansion 326 12.6 Heat and Internal Energy 328 12.7 Heat and Temperature Change: Specific Heat Capacity 328 12.8 Heat and Phase Change: Latent Heat 331 12.9 Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter 336 12.10 Humidity 339 CONCEPT SUMMARY 340 13 The Transfer of Heat 348 13.1 Convection 348 13.2 Conduction 351 13.3 Radiation 357 13.4 Applications 361 CONCEPT SUMMARY 362 14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory 367 14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro s Number 367 14.2 The Ideal Gas Law 370 14.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases 375 14.4 Diffusion 379 CONCEPT SUMMARY 382 15 Thermodynamics 388 15.1 Thermodynamic Systems and Their Surroundings 388 15.2 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 388 15.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics 389 15.4 Thermal Processes 391 15.5 Thermal Processes Using an Ideal Gas 395 15.6 Specifi c Heat Capacities 398 15.7 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 399 15.8 Heat Engines 400 15.9 Carnot s Principle and the Carnot Engine 401 15.10 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps 404 15.11 Entropy 408 15.12 The Third Law of Thermodynamics 412 CONCEPT SUMMARY 412 16 Waves and Sound 422 16.1 The Nature of Waves 422 16.2 Periodic Waves 424 16.3 The Speed of a Wave on a String 425 16.4 The Mathematical Description of a Wave 428 16.5 The Nature of Sound 428 16.6 The Speed of Sound 431 16.7 Sound Intensity 435 16.8 Decibels 437 16.9 The Doppler Effect 439 16.10 Applications of Sound in Medicine 444 16.11 The Sensitivity of the Human Ear 446 CONCEPT SUMMARY 446 17 The Principle of Linear Superposition and Interference Phenomena 456 17.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition 456 17.2 Constructive and Destructive Interference of Sound Waves 457 17.3 Diffraction 461 17.4 Beats 463 17.5 Transverse Standing Waves 465 17.6 Longitudinal Standing Waves 469 17.7 Complex Sound Waves 472 CONCEPT SUMMARY 473 18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields 481 18.1 The Origin of Electricity 481 18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force 482 18.3 Conductors and Insulators 484 18.4 Charging by Contact and by Induction 485 18.5 Coulomb s Law 486 18.6 The Electric Field 491 18.7 Electric Field Lines 496 18.8 The Electric Field Inside a Conductor: Shielding 499 18.9 Gauss Law 501 18.10 Copiers and Computer Printers 505 CONCEPT SUMMARY 506 19 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential 514 19.1 Potential Energy 514 19.2 The Electric Potential Difference 515 19.3 The Electric Potential Difference Created by Point Charges 521 19.4 Equipotential Surfaces and Their Relation to the Electric Field 525 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics 528 19.6 Biomedical Applications of Electric Potential Differences 532 CONCEPT SUMMARY 534 20 Electric Circuits 541 20.1 Electromotive Force and Current 541 20.2 Ohm s Law 543 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity 544 20.4 Electric Power 547 20.5 Alternating Current 549 20.6 Series Wiring 552 20.7 Parallel Wiring 555 20.8 Circuits Wired Partially in Series and Partially in Parallel 559 20.9 Internal Resistance 560 20.10 Kirchhoff s Rules 561 20.11 The Measurement of Current and Voltage 564 20.12 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel 566 20.13 RC Circuits 568 20.14 Safety and the Physiological Effects of Current 569 CONCEPT SUMMARY 570 21 Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields 580 21.1 Magnetic Fields 580 21.2 The Force That a Magnetic Field Exerts on a Moving Charge 582 21.3 The Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field 585 21.4 The Mass Spectrometer 589 21.5 The Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field 590 21.6 The Torque on a Current-Carrying Coil 592 21.7 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents 594 21.8 Ampere s Law 601 21.9 Magnetic Materials 602 CONCEPT SUMMARY 605 22 Electromagnetic Induction 615 22.1 Induced Emf and Induced Current 615 22.2 Motional Emf 616 22.3 Magnetic Flux 622 22.4 Faraday s Law of Electromagnetic Induction 624 22.5 Lenz s Law 627 22.6 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction to the Reproduction of Sound 630 22.7 The Electric Generator 631 22.8 Mutual Inductance and Self-Inductance 636 22.9 Transformers 639 CONCEPT SUMMARY 642 23 Alternating Current Circuits 651 23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance 651 23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance 653 23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance 655 23.4 Resonance in Electric Circuits 660 23.5 Semiconductor Devices 662 CONCEPT SUMMARY 667 24 Electromagnetic Waves 673 24.1 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves 673 24.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 677 24.3 The Speed of Light 679 24.4 The Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves 681 24.5 The Doppler Effect and Electromagnetic Waves 685 24.6 Polarization 686 CONCEPT SUMMARY 692 25 The Refl ection of Light: Mirrors 699 25.1 Wave Fronts and Rays 699 25.2 The Refl ection of Light 700 25.3 The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror 701 25.4 Spherical Mirrors 703 25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors 706 25.6 The Mirror Equation and the Magnification Equation 710 CONCEPT SUMMARY 715 26 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments 721 26.1 The Index of Refraction 721 26.2 Snell s Law and the Refraction of Light 722 26.3 Total Internal Refl ection 727 26.4 Polarization and the Refl ection and Refraction of Light 733 26.5 The Dispersion of Light: Prisms and Rainbows 733 26.6 Lenses 735 26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses 736 26.8 The Thin-Lens Equation and the Magnification Equation 739 26.9 Lenses in Combination 742 26.10 The Human Eye 744 26.11 Angular Magnifi cation and the Magnifying Glass 748 26.12 The Compound Microscope 750 26.13 The Telescope 751 26.14 Lens Aberrations 753 CONCEPT SUMMARY 754 27 Interference and the Wave Nature of Light 766 27.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition 766 27.2 Young s Double-Slit Experiment 768 27.3 Thin-Film Interference 771 27.4 The Michelson Interferometer 775 27.5 Diffraction 776 27.6 Resolving Power 780 27.7 The Diffraction Grating 785 27.8 Compact Discs, Digital Video Discs, and the Use of Interference 787 27.9 X-Ray Diffraction 789 CONCEPT SUMMARY 790 28 Special Relativity 798 28.1 Events and Inertial Reference Frames 798 28.2 The Postulates of Special Relativity 799 28.3 The Relativity of Time: Time Dilation 801 28.4 The Relativity of Length: Length Contraction 805 28.5 Relativistic Momentum 807 28.6 The Equivalence of Mass and Energy 809 28.7 The Relativistic Addition of Velocities 814 CONCEPT SUMMARY 816 29 Particles and Waves 822 29.1 The Wave Particle Duality 822 29.2 Blackbody Radiation and Planck s Constant 823 29.3 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect 824 29.4 The Momentum of a Photon and the Compton Effect 830 29.5 The De Broglie Wavelength and the Wave Nature of Matter 833 29.6 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 835 CONCEPT SUMMARY 839 30 The Nature of the Atom 844 30.1 Rutherford Scattering and the Nuclear Atom 844 30.2 Line Spectra 845 30.3 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 847 30.4 De Broglie s Explanation of Bohr s Assumption About Angular Momentum 852 30.5 The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Hydrogen Atom 852 30.6 The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table of the Elements 856 30.7 X-Rays 859 30.8 The Laser 863 30.9 Medical Applications of the Laser 865 30.10 Holography 867 CONCEPT SUMMARY 869 31 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 876 31.1 Nuclear Structure 876 31.2 The Strong Nuclear Force and the Stability of the Nucleus 878 31.3 The Mass Defect of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy 879 31.4 Radioactivity 882 31.5 The Neutrino 887 31.6 Radioactive Decay and Activity 888 31.7 Radioactive Dating 891 31.8 Radioactive Decay Series 895 31.9 Radiation Detectors 895 CONCEPT SUMMARY 897 32 Ionizing Radiation, Nuclear Energy, and Elementary Particles 903 32.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation 903 32.2 Induced Nuclear Reactions 907 32.3 Nuclear Fission 909 32.4 Nuclear Reactors 911 32.5 Nuclear Fusion 912 32.6 Elementary Particles 915 32.7 Cosmology 920 CONCEPT SUMMARY 923 Appendices A-1 Appendix A Powers of Ten and Scientifi c Notation A-1 Appendix B Significant Figures A-1 Appendix C Algebra A-2 Appendix D Exponents and Logarithms A-3 Appendix E Geometry and Trigonometry A-4 Appendix F Selected Isotopes A-5 Answers to Check Your Understanding A-9 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-16 Index I-1

About the Author

John D. Cutnell is currently Professor Emeritus in the Department of Physics at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Kenneth W. Johnson is currently Professor Emeritus in the Department of Physics at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

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