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Physiology of Parasites


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Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- What is a parasite?.- Historical perspective.- Importance of parasitology to man.- 2. Feeding and Nutritional Physiology.- In vitro culture of parasites.- The alimentary canal of helminths.- Monogenea.- Digenea.- Nematoda.- The role of external surfaces of parasites in their nutrition.- The morphology of the parasite surface.- Transtegumentary absorption of nutrients.- Mechanisms of solute entry.- Transport of molecules into parasites.- Bidirectional fluxes of nutrients.- Surface enzymes in parasites.- Intrinsic surface enzymes.- Extrinsic surface enzymes.- Inhibition of host enzymes by parasites.- Summary.- 3. Carbohydrate Metabolism and Energy Production.- Stored carbohydrates.- Glycolysis.- End-products of carbohydrate catabolism.- Glycolytic enzymes of parasites.- Carbon dioxide fixation.- Regulation of carbohydrate catabolism.- Tricarboxylic acid cycle.- Role of oxygen in parasite energy metabolism.- Pasteur and Crabtree effects.- Electron transport and terminal oxidations.- Respiratory pigments in parasites.- Pentose phosphate pathway.- Glyoxylate pathway.- Summary.- 4. Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acids.- Proteins.- Protein composition.- Amino acid content.- Protein synthesis.- Protein and amino acid metabolism.- Respiratory proteins.- Lipids.- Lipid composition.- Lipid biosynthesis.- Lipid catabolism.- Nucleic acids.- Nucleic acid composition.- Nucleic acid synthesis.- Nucleic acid catabolism.- Extranuclear DNA of trypanosomes.- Summary.- 5. Excretory Systems, Nitrogen Excretion, Water And Ionic Regulation.- Contractile vacuoles in Protozoa.- Protonephridial systems in Platyhelminthes.- End-products of nitrogen metabolism.- Ionic regulation and water balance.- Free amino acids and osmoregulation.- Summary.- 6. Reproduction.- Asexual reproduction.- Sexual reproduction.- Protozoa.- Monogenea.- Digenea.- Cestoda.- Acanthocephala.- Nematoda.- Synchronization of parasite and host reproduction.- Summary.- 7. Parasite Transmission.- Mechanisms for locating the host.- Monogenea.- Digenea.- Cestoda.- Mechanisms for penetrating the host.- Digenea.- Nematoda.- Circadian rhythms and transmission.- Summary.- 8. Establishment and Growth of Parasites.- Hatching mechanisms.- Protozoa.- Digenea.- Cestoda.- Acanthocephala.- Nematoda.- Biochemical aspects of establishment.- Role of bile salts.- Metabolic changes.- Migration and site selection.- Patterns of migration.- Site selection and recognition.- Invasion of host tissues.- Factors inhibiting parasite growth and establishment.- Crowding effect.- Interspecific interactions.- Labile growth patterns.- Moulting in nematodes.- Summary.- 9. Nervous Systems, Sense Organs and Behavioural Coordination.- Morphology of the parasite nervous system.- Sense organs.- Monogenea.- Digenea.- Cestoda.- Acanthocephala.- Nematoda.- Nervous transmission, neuromuscular junctions and neurosecretion.- Behavioural coordination.- Summary.- 10. Host-Parasite Interactions.- General principles of cellular and immunological defence systems.- Immunity to Protozoa.- Blood-dwelling Protozoa.- Malaria.- Babesia.- Trypanosoma.- Tissue-dwelling Protozoa.- Leishmania.- Coccidia.- Amoebae.- Immunity to helminthes.- Digenea.- Cestoda.- Nematoda.- Immunisation against parasitic diseases.- Pathogenesis of parasitic infections.- Immunopathology.- General pathology.- Mechanical injury.- Toxic effects.- Effects on host cell growth.- Effects on host reproductive systems.- Metabolic effects.- Summary.- Further Reading.- Appendix An outline classification.

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