List of Figures vii Acknowledgments ix The Authors xv Introduction xvii Part One: Laying the Foundation for Power 1 Chapter 1: Six Powers of Making Thinking Visible 2 Fostering Deep Learning. 4 Cultivating Engaged Students 6 Changing the Role of the Student and Teacher. 9 Enhancing Our Formative Assessment Practice. 12 Improving Learning (even when measured by standardized tests) 14 Developing Thinking Dispositions 22 Conclusion 24 Chapter 2: Making Thinking Visible: A Goal and Set of Practices 27 Making Thinking Visible as a Goal of Teaching 27 Making Thinking Visible as a Set of Practices. 29 Organizing Thinking Routines 41 Part Two: Eighteen Powerful Routines 43 Chapter 3: Routines for Engaging with Others 44 Give One Get One 46 Ladder of Feedback 58 The Leaderless Discussion 71 SAIL: Share, Ask, Ideas, Learned 84 Making Meaning 97 +1 Routine 110 Chapter 4: Routines for Engaging with Ideas 122 Question Sorts 124 Peeling the Fruit 136 The Story Routine: Main-Side-Hidden 149 Beauty & Truth 159 NDA 172 Take Note 185 Chapter 5: Routines for Engaging in Action 195 PG&E: Predict-Gather-Explain 197 ESP + I 210 Be-Sure-To 222 What? So What? Now What? 234 The 3 Y's 246 The 4 If's 256 Part Three: Realizing the Power 268 Chapter 6: Using Thinking Routines for Maximum Effect 269 Planning for Thinking 271 Being Primed for Thinking 280 Pressing for Thinking 286 Positioning for Thinking 292 Chapter 7: Learning to Support One Another as We Make Thinking Visible 297 Beyond the Toolset: Developing Our Skills at Using the Tools 298 Beyond the Skillset: The Mindsets that Motivate Action 306 Supports for Developing Skillsets and Mindsets 310 In Conclusion 317 References 320
RON RITCHHART is a Senior Research Associate at Harvard Project Zero and Fellow at the University of Melbourne, Australia. His current research focuses on developing intellectual character, making thinking visible, and promoting deep learning. MARK CHURCH has been an educator for over twenty years and has particular interest in helping teachers and school leaders think deeply about their efforts to cultivate thinking and learning opportunities for students. Ron Ritchhart and Mark Church (with Karin Morrison) are the coauthors of Making Thinking Visible.