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Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics
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Table of Contents

1 Getting Started: Introductory Concepts and Definitions 1 1.1 Using Thermodynamics 2 1.2 Defining Systems 2 1.3 Describing Systems and Their Behavior 6 1.4 Measuring Mass, Length, Time, and Force 9 1.5 Specific Volume 11 1.6 Pressure 12 1.7 Temperature 16 1.8 Engineering Design and Analysis 20 1.9 Methodology for Solving Thermodynamics Problems 22 2 Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics 30 2.1 Reviewing Mechanical Concepts of Energy 31 2.2 Broadening Our Understanding of Work 35 2.3 Broadening Our Understanding of Energy 46 2.4 Energy Transfer by Heat 47 2.5 Energy Accounting: Energy Balance for Closed Systems 51 2.6 Energy Analysis of Cycles 63 2.7 Energy Storage 67 3 Evaluating Properties 78 3.1 Getting Started 79 Evaluating Properties: General Considerations 80 3.2 p- -T Relation 80 3.3 Studying Phase Change 84 3.4 Retrieving Thermodynamic Properties 87 3.5 Evaluating Pressure, Specific Volume, and Temperature 87 3.6 Evaluating Specific Internal Energy and Enthalpy 93 3.7 Evaluating Properties Using Computer Software 96 3.8 Applying the Energy Balance Using Property Tables and Software 97 3.9 Introducing Specific Heats c and cp 104 3.10 Evaluating Properties of Liquids and Solids 105 3.11 Generalized Compressibility Chart 109 Evaluating Properties Using the Ideal Gas Model 114 3.12 Introducing the Ideal Gas Model 114 3.13 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases 117 3.14 Applying the Energy Balance Using Ideal Gas Tables, Constant Specific Heats, and Software 120 3.15 Polytropic Process Relations 128 4 Control Volume Analysis Using Energy 142 4.1 Conservation of Mass for a Control Volume 143 4.2 Forms of the Mass Rate Balance 145 4.3 Applications of the Mass Rate Balance 147 4.4 Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume 151 4.5 Analyzing Control Volumes at Steady State 154 4.6 Nozzles and Diffusers 156 4.7 Turbines 159 4.8 Compressors and Pumps 163 4.9 Heat Exchangers 168 4.10 Throttling Devices 173 4.11 System Integration 175 4.12 Transient Analysis 178 5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 202 5.1 Introducing the Second Law 203 5.2 Statements of the Second Law 206 5.3 Irreversible and Reversible Processes 209 5.4 Interpreting the Kelvin-Planck Statement 214 5.5 Applying the Second Law to Thermodynamic Cycles 215 5.6 Second Law Aspects of Power Cycles Interacting with Two Reservoirs 216 5.7 Second Law Aspects of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles Interacting with Two Reservoirs 218 5.8 The Kelvin and International Temperature Scales 220 5.9 Maximum Performance Measures for Cycles Operating between Two Reservoirs 223 5.10 Carnot Cycle 229 5.11 Clausius Inequality 231 6 Using Entropy 243 6.1 Entropy A System Property 244 6.2 Retrieving Entropy Data 245 6.3 Introducing the T dS Equations 248 6.4 Entropy Change of an Incompressible Substance 250 6.5 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas 251 6.6 Entropy Change in Internally Reversible Processes of Closed Systems 254 6.7 Entropy Balance for Closed Systems 257 6.8 Directionality of Processes 264 6.9 Entropy Rate Balance for Control Volumes 269 6.10 Rate Balances for Control Volumes at Steady State 270 6.11 Isentropic Processes 277 6.12 Isentropic Efficiencies of Turbines, Nozzles, Compressors, and Pumps 284 6.13 Heat Transfer and Work in Internally Reversible, Steady-State Flow Processes 291 7 Exergy Analysis 309 7.2 Conceptualizing Exergy 311 7.3 Exergy of a System 312 7.4 Closed System Exergy Balance 318 7.5 Exergy Rate Balance for Control Volumes at Steady State 327 7.6 Exergetic (Second Law) Efficiency 339 7.7 Thermoeconomics 345 8 Vapor Power Systems 367 Introducing Power Generation 368 Considering Vapor Power Systems 372 8.1 Introducing Vapor Power Plants 372 8.2 The Rankine Cycle 375 8.3 Improving Performance Superheat, Reheat, and Supercritical 389 8.4 Improving Performance Regenerative Vapor Power Cycle 395 8.5 Other Vapor Power Cycle Aspects 405 8.6 Case Study: Exergy Accounting of a Vapor Power Plant 410 9 Gas Power Systems 427 Considering Internal Combustion Engines 428 9.1 Introducing Engine Terminology 428 9.2 Air-Standard Otto Cycle 431 9.3 Air-Standard Diesel Cycle 436 9.4 Air-Standard Dual Cycle 440 Considering Gas Turbine Power Plants 443 9.5 Modeling Gas Turbine Power Plants 443 9.6 Air-Standard Brayton Cycle 445 9.7 Regenerative Gas Turbines 455 9.8 Regenerative Gas Turbines with Reheat and Intercooling 459 9.9 Gas Turbine-Based Combined Cycles 471 9.10 Integrated Gasifi cation Combined-Cycle Power Plants 478 9.11 Gas Turbines for Aircraft Propulsion 480 Considering Compressible Flow through Nozzles and Diffusers 484 9.12 Compressible Flow Preliminaries 485 9.13 Analyzing One-Dimensional Steady Flow in Nozzles and Diffusers 489 9.14 Flow in Nozzles and Diffusers of Ideal Gases with Constant Specific Heats 495 10 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems 516 10.1 Vapor Refrigeration Systems 517 10.2 Analyzing Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems 519 10.3 Selecting Refrigerants 527 10.4 Other Vapor-Compression Applications 530 10.5 Absorption Refrigeration 533 10.6 Heat Pump Systems 535 10.7 Gas Refrigeration Systems 539 11 Thermodynamic Relations 554 11.1 Using Equations of State 555 11.2 Important Mathematical Relations 561 11.3 Developing Property Relations 564 11.4 Evaluating Changes in Entropy, Internal Energy, and Enthalpy 571 11.5 Other Thermodynamic Relations 579 11.6 Constructing Tables of Thermodynamic Properties 586 11.7 Generalized Charts for Enthalpy and Entropy 591 11.8 p- -T Relations for Gas Mixtures 598 11.9 Analyzing Multicomponent Systems 602 12 Ideal Gas Mixture and Psychrometric Applications 625 Ideal Gas Mixtures: General Considerations 626 12.1 Describing Mixture Composition 626 12.2 Relating p, V, and T for Ideal Gas Mixtures 630 12.3 Evaluating U, H, S, and Specific Heats 631 12.4 Analyzing Systems Involving Mixtures 634 Psychrometric Applications 647 12.5 Introducing Psychrometric Principles 647 12.6 Psychrometers: Measuring the Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures 658 12.7 Psychrometric Charts 660 12.8 Analyzing Air-Conditioning Processes 661 12.9 Cooling Towers 678 13 Reacting Mixtures and Combustion 693 Combustion Fundamentals 694 13.1 Introducing Combustion 694 13.2 Conservation of Energy Reacting Systems 703 13.3 Determining the Adiabatic Flame Temperature 716 13.4 Fuel Cells 720 13.5 Absolute Entropy and the Third Law of Thermodynamics 724 Chemical Exergy 732 13.6 Conceptualizing Chemical Exergy 733 13.7 Standard Chemical Exergy 737 13.8 Applying Total Exergy 742 14 Chemical and Phase Equilibrium 758 Equilibrium Fundamentals 759 14.1 Introducing Equilibrium Criteria 759 Chemical Equilibrium 764 14.2 Equation of Reaction Equilibrium 764 14.3 Calculating Equilibrium Compositions 766 14.4 Further Examples of the Use of the Equilibrium Constant 776 Phase Equilibrium 785 14.5 Equilibrium between Two Phases of a Pure Substance 785 14.6 Equilibrium of Multicomponent, Multiphase Systems 787 Appendix Tables, Figures, and Charts 799 Index to Tables in SI Units 799 Index to Figures and Charts 847 Index 859

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