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Probing the Atom


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Table of Contents

Preface: In at the Beginnings xi Notes xviii Chapter I Energies and Spectral Lines 3 1.1. Anatomy of Hydrogen 3 1.2. Shapes and Widths 12 Notes 17 Chapter 2 The Driven Two-Level Atom 19 2.1. Dynamics of a Two-Level Atom 19 2.2. Rotating-Wave Approximation 23 2.3. Oscillating-Field Theory 28 2.4. Occupation Probabilities 32 Notes 42 Chapter 3 The Driven Multilevel Atom 43 3.1. Statistical Uncertainties and the Density Matrix 43 3.2. Time Evolution of the Density Matrix 46 3.3. Generalized Resonant Field Theory 48 3.4. Two-State Transitions 54 3.5. Three-State Transitions 56 3.6. Four-State Transitions 60 3.7. Numerical Solution of the N-State System 65 3.8. Coupling Elements Vuv 67 Appendix. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Three- and Four-State Systems 72 Notes 76 Chapter 4 Multiple-Quantum Transitions 78 4.1. The Quantized Radiofrequency Field 78 4.2. Remarks on Dipole Coupling 85 4.3. The Two-Level Atom (Again) 87 4.4. Coherent Field States 91 4.5. Triple-Quantum Transitions 93 4.6. Crossings and Anticrossings 94 4.7 Resolvent Operator Solution 99 4.8 One- and Three-Photon Lineshapes 106 Appendix 4A: Semiclassical Theory of Multiphoton Transitions 111 Appendix 4B: Resolvents, Propagators, and Green's Functions 113 Notes 115 Chapter 5 The Decay of Coupled States 117 5.1. Perspectives on Radiation Damping 117 5.2. The Quantized Optical Field 118 5.3. State Amplitudes and Radiative Decay Rates 122 5.4. Emission Lineshapes 127 Notes 138 Chapter 6 Optical Detection Theory 139 6.1. The Process of Detection 139 6.2. The Optical Detection Function 143 6.3. The Efficiency Matrix 147 6.4. The Optical Signal 153 Notes 158 Chapter 7 State Selection and Lineshape Resolution 160 7.1. The Use of Sequential Fields 160 7.2. Parallel Oscillating Fields 162 7.3. Nonparallel Oscillating Fields 170 Notes 172 Chapter 8 Elements of Experimental Design and Application 173 8.1. General Description 173 8.2. Ion Production and Extraction 175 8.3. Ion Acceleration and Focusing 179 8.4. Excited Atom Production 184 8.5. The Radiofrequency System 187 8.6. Optical Detection 196 8.7. Spectroscopy 197 8.8. Electron Capture and Atom Formation 206 Appendix 8A: The Paraxial Ray Equation for Ions 214 Appendix 8B: Effect of Standing Waves on a Resonance Lineshape 215 Appendix 8C: Phenomenological Model of the RF Chamber 219 Notes 222 Index 225

Promotional Information

This book is a personal account of how physicists understand, and go about understanding, atomic structures and interactions with electromagnetic fields. It is a story because the book has an overriding vision. Subjects are not simply thrown together, but instead flow smoothly; it is like sitting and talking physics with a trusted mentor... Silverman achieves his goal and provides a timeless view of the major ideas and techniques of atomic physics. -- Jim McClymer, University of Maine The author guides us on a grand tour of probing the atomic structure and behavior by means of oscillating fields with radio frequencies (rf). In the course of the tour, he presents systematically the basic principles and quantum mechanical frameworks in a way instructive and helpful in understanding spectroscopic rf-line shape analysis. This book will be useful not only to spectroscopists as a quick review of theories in the field but also to those interested more generally in application of quantum mechanics in beam-field interactions. The book is extremely well written and well organized. I believe a wide class of readers will benefit from this book. -- Akira Inomata, State University of New York at Albany

About the Author

Mark P. Silverman is an internationally known atomic and optical physicist with a Ph.D. from Harvard. He has held the Frederic Joliot Chair of Physics at the Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie in Paris and was the first western scientist to be Chief Researcher at the Hitachi Advanced Research Laboratory in Tokyo. He is Professor of Physics at Trinity College and author of And Yet It Moves: Strange Systems and Subtle Questions in Physics and Waves and Grains: Reflections on Light and Learning (Princeton).


"As a comprehensive treatment of a well-defined problem, the book is an excellent choice for advanced quantum mechanics studies on atomic structure... Silverman does a masterful job of placing the required mathematics in perspective..."--Choice

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