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Protoplasmic Streaming
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I. Introduction.- II. Types of Streaming.- 1. General survey.- a) Agitation.- b) Circulation.- c) Rotation.- d) Fountain streaming.- e) Protoplasmic streaming occurring along definite tracks.- f) Protoplasmic streaming in fungal hypkae (tidal streaming).- g) Protoplasmic streaming in myxomycete plasmodia (shuttle streaming).- 2. Change in streaming type.- a) Transition of streaming patterns in intact cells.- b) Development of order in an isolated drop of protoplasm.- III. Rate and Intensity.- 1. Intracellular velocity distribution.- a) Rhizoid cell of Nitella.- b) Leaf cell of Nitella.- c) Plasmodial strand.- 2. Rate.- a) Methods of measurement.- b) Size of particles and its relation to their rate of movement.- c) Length of the cell and its bearing to the rate of flow.- d) Spontaneous changes in the rate of flow in myxomycete Plasmodium.- e) Rate of protoplasmic streaming in various materials.- 3. Course and direction of rotational streaming.- 4. Transport-volume and intensity of flow.- a) Flow intensity in Nitella cells.- b) Intensity of intracapillary streaming in the myxomycete Plasmodium.- IV. Motive Force Responsible for the Protoplasmic Streaming.- 1. Motive force of the rotational streaming.- a) Principle of measurement.- b) Experimental data.- 2. Motive force of the protoplasmic streaming in myxomycete Plasmodium.- a) Outline of the double-chamber method.- b) The curve representing autonomous changes in the motive force -"dynamoplasmogram (DPG)".- c) Polarity of the motive force.- d) General characteristics of the dynamoplasmogram of the Plasmodium.- e) Simultaneous measurement of the motive force and the potential difference.- f) Simultaneous measurement of the motive force and respiration ..- V. Rhythmicity.- 1. Rhythm of motive force generation in the Plasmodium.- a) Analysis of dynamoplasmogram.- b) Polyrhythmicity of motive force generation in the Plasmodium -concept of intraplasmic interference.- c) Approaches to the study of the causes of rhythmic flow.- 2. Rhythmicity of the protoplasmic motion in plant cells.- a) Bacillaria.- b) Euglena.- c) Spirogyra.- d) Nitella.- VI. Energetics of Protoplasmic Streaming.- 1. Oxygen tension.- 2. Metabolic inhibitors.- a) Cyanide.- b) Carbon monoxide.- c) 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP).- d) Monoiodoacetate (MIA) and fluoride.- 3. The role of ATP in the protoplasmic flow.- a) ATP as the energy source for the motive force production in the myxomycete plasmodium.- b) Effect of ATP on the protoplasmic streaming in plant cells.- 4. Availability of ATP.- VII. Influences of External Factors.- 1. Temperature.- a) Relation between temperature and rate of streaming.- b) Factors participating in the effect of temperature on the streaming rate.- c) The effect of temperature on the motive force of the protoplasmic streaming.- d) Supraoptimal temperature.- e) Sudden change in temperature.- 2. Light.- 3. Ultraviolet rays and other radiations.- 4. Osmotic pressure.- 5. Plasmolysis.- 6. Hydrostatic pressure.- 7. Mechanical pressure.- 8. Gravity.- 9. Centrifugal force.- 10. Electric current.- 11. Action current.- 12. Magnetic field.- 13. Hydrogen ions.- 14 Carbon dioxide.- 15. Salts.- 16. Auxins.- 17. Fat solvents.- 18. Miscellaneous substances.- VIII. Biology and Function of Protoplasmic Streaming.- 1. Inducement of protoplasmic streaming.- a) Chemodinesis.- b) Photodinesis.- 2. Transport of substances.- 3. Locomotion.- 4. Correlation with some physiological activities and seasonal variations.- IX. Experimental Approaches to the Mechanism of Protoplasmic Streaming.- 1. Seat of the motive force in rotational streaming.- a) Deduction from the velocity distribution.- b) Additional evidences showing the participation of cortical layer in rotation.- 2. Streaming caused passively by difference in internal pressure.- 3. Protoplasmic motion in an isolated protoplasmic fragment.- a) Effusion of endoplasm.- b) Protoplasmic motion in an endoplasmic drop.- c) Sliding motion of protuberances at the protoplasmic surface.- 4. Moving fibrils in protoplasm.- 5. The phenomenon of shifting occurring in the plasmagel.- 6. Causal relation between potential difference and the motive force of the protoplasmic streaming.- 7. The mechanochemical system of the protoplasmic streaming.- a) Properties of myosin B in the myxomycete plasmodium.- b) Properties of the glycerinated cell.- X. Theories.- 1. Rotational streaming.- a) Action of endoplasm-vacuole interface.- b) Action of cell surface.- c) Inherent property of streaming protoplasm.- d) Action of sol-gel interface.- 2. Streaming in transvacuolar protoplasmic strand.- 3. Streaming in myxomycete plasmodium.- 4. Independent motion of protoplasmic particles.- XI. Concluding Remarks.- Acknowledgements.- Author Index.

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