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The Psychology of Criminal Conduct


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Table of Contents

Preface to the Sixth Edition

Part 1: The Theoretical Context and Knowledge Base
to the Psychology of Criminal Conduct

Chapter 1 An Overview of the Psychology of Criminal Conduct Definition of the Psychology of Criminal Conduct Values at the Base of PCC Objectives of PCC Definitions of Criminal Behavior Variation in Criminal Conduct A Look Ahead Worth Remembering Chapter 2 The Empirical Basis to the Psychology of Criminal Conduct The Research Designs 1. The Correlates of Crime and the Cross-Sectional Research Designs 2. Predictor Variables and the Longitudinal Design 3. Dynamic Predictors and the Multiwave Longitudinal Design 4. Causal Variables and the Randomized Experimental Design Some Commonly Used Statistics 1. Statistical Significance: p < .05 and Confidence Intervals 2. Statistical Measures of the Magnitude of Covariation Meta-Analyses Moderator Variables A Comment on Aggregated Crime Rates Worth Remembering Recommended Readings Chapter 3 From Criminology Theories to a Psychological Perspective of Criminal Conduct x Criminological Theories Strain Theory Subcultural Perspectives Labeling and Marxist/Conflict Theories Control Theories Differential Association Theory Summary of Criminological Theories A General Personality and Cognitive Social Learning Theory of Criminal Conduct The Learning of Criminal Behavior A Glimpse at the Evidence Supporting GPCSL and the Central Eight Summary Worth Remembering Part 2: The Major Risk/Need Factors of Criminal Conduct Chapter 4 The Biological Basis of Criminal Behavior Heredity and Crime The Search for a Crime Gene Intergenerational Crime What Twin and Adoption Studies Tell Us about Nature and Nurture Twin Studies Adoption Studies The Nature-Nurture Interaction Neurophysiological Factors and Crime The Difficult, Impulsive, Sensation-Seeking Temperament Crime: A Failure or Success of Evolution? A Failure in Evolution: The Caveman Awakened Criminal Behavior as an Evolutionary Adaptation Three Closing Comments Worth Remembering Recommended Readings Chapter 5 Antisocial Personality Pattern Psychology's View of Personality The Super Trait Perspectives of Personality Is Personality Just a Matter of Traits? Criminology's View of Personality Then . . . And Now . . . Antisocial Personality as Pathology Psychiatry and Antisocial Personality Disorder Psychopathy The Assessment of Psychopathy: Hare's Psychopathy Checklist
(PCL-R) Are There Noncriminal Psychopaths? The Etiology of Psychopathy The Treatment of Psychopaths Can Children Be Psychopaths? A General Personality and Cognitive Social Learning Perspective: APP Poor Self-Control: A Facet of Antisocial Personality Antisocial Personality Pattern: Risk and Treatment Worth Remembering Recommended Readings Chapter 6 The Role of Procriminal Associates and Attitudes
in Criminal Conduct When Parents Lose Control: The Path to Procriminal Associates Psychological Perspectives on Delinquent Associates Delinquent Associates: Training in Criminal Behavior Gangs Cognitions Supportive of Crime: Procriminal Attitudes Development of Procriminal Attitudes The Attitude-Behavior Link Classifying Procriminal Attitudes Assessment of Procriminal Attitudes Targeting Procriminal Attitudes in Treatment Worth Remembering Recommended Readings Chapter 7 The Person in Social Context: Family, Marital, School, Work,
Leisure/Recreation, and Neighborhood Family of Origin Learning to Care: The Parent-Child Relationship and the Development
of Social Bonds Parenting Practices and Delinquency Family Interventions and the Reduction of Delinquent Behavior Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Family Programs Summary Marital Attachments School Work Leisure/Recreation Neighborhood Summary Worth Remembering Recommended Readings Chapter 8 Substance Abuse Alcohol Abuse Definition and Prevalence Alcohol Abuse and Crime Treating Alcohol Abuse Drug Abuse Prevalence Treating Drug Abuse Relapse Prevention Summary Dealing with Resistance to Treatment Motivational Interviewing Mandated Treatment and Drug Courts A Final Comment on Substance Abuse Worth Remembering Recommended Readings Part 3: Applications Chapter 9 The Risk-Need-Responsivity Model of Offender Assessment and Treatment The Overarching Principles The Core RNR Principles and Key Clinical Issues Organizational Principles Summary Chapter 10 Prediction of Criminal Behavior and Classification of Offenders Assessing Predictive Accuracy PCC and Prediction Offender Assessment and the Principles of Risk, Need, and Responsivity Risk Principle: Match the Level of Service to the Level of Risk Need Principle: Target criminogenic needs Responsivity Principle: Use cognitive-behavioral interventions with attention to personal learning styles Approaches to the Assessment and Prediction of Criminal Behavior First-Generation Risk Assessment: Professional Judgment Second-Generation Risk Assessment: Actuarial, Static Risk Scales Third-Generation Assessment: Risk/Need Scales The Level of Service Inventory-Revised Criminogenic Needs and the Dynamic Validity of the LSI-R Summary of the LSI-R Fourth-Generation Risk Assessment: The Integration of Case Management
with Risk/Need Assessment The General Applicability of Theory-Based Offender Assessment LS Risk Assessment Across Different Populations Age Gender Race/Ethnicity Summary LS Risk and Violence Outcomes Obstacles to Using Empirically Based Risk Assessment for Offender Rehabilitation The Future of Offender Assessment Worth Remembering Recommended Readings Chapter 11 Offender Rehabilitation The How and Why of "Nothing Works" The Birth of "What Works" Further results from the Expanded Meta-Analysis Independent Meta-Analytic Summaries of the Effects of RNR Programming GPCSL and Intervention Worth Remembering Recommended Readings Chapter 12 Creating and Maintaining RNR Adherence: A Real World Challenge Fidelity in Offender Risk/Need Assessment Enhancing the Integrity of Correctional Treatment Some Major Barriers to RNR Adherence Assessment of Programs and Agencies The Components of Effective Correctional Supervision and Treatment The Dimensions of Effective Correctional Counseling: 1. Relationship The Dimensions of Effective Correctional Counseling: 2. Structuring a) The Effective Model b) Effective Reinforcement c) Effective Disapproval d) Cognitive Restructuring x Training Correctional Staff to Apply the RNR Model Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS) Training Issues The Evaluation of STICS Results Staff Training Aimed at Reducing Re-arrest (STARR) Effective Practices in Community Supervision (EPICS) Summary Cost-Benefit Evaluations of Offender Treatment Worth Remembering Recommended Readings Chapter 13 The Failed Experiment: Getting Tough on Crime Criminal Justice Sanctions and Just Deserts The Effects of Imprisonment on Crime and the Community 1. Incapacitation Effect: Taking the Bad Off the Streets 2. Restoring Faith in the Criminal Justice System 3. Deterrence Evaluations of Intermediate Sanctions The Unfulfilled Promise of Fairness Summary The Psychology of Punishment Why Doesn't Punishment Work? Conditions for Effective Punishment The Side Effects of Punishment Summary on Punishment An Alternative to Retribution: Restorative Justice Worth Remembering Recommended Readings Chapter 14 Criminal Subtypes: Intimate Partner Violence, the Mentally Disordered and Sex Offenders Intimate Partner Violence Men Who Batter: How Different are They from Regular Criminals? Risk Factors from Surveys Risk Factors from the Study of Conflictual Relationships Actuarial Risk Scales for Intimate Partner Abuse Treatment of Male Batterers The Mentally Disordered Offender (MDO) Estimating the Prevalence of Mental Disorders Dangerousness and the Psychiatric Patient Threat/Control-Override Symptomatology Dangerous and the MDO Risk Factors for MDOs Treatment of the MDO The Sex Offender How Unique are Sex Offenders? Risk Factors for Sexual Offending The Treatment of Sex Offenders A Few Closing Comments Worth Remembering Recommended Readings Part 4: Summary and Conclusions Chapter 15 A General Personality and Cognitive Social Learning Perspective
of Criminal Conduct: Summary and Conclusions A. Empirical Understanding Incidence and Prevalence of Criminal Activity The Correlates of Criminal Activity The Central Eight Wide Applicability The Ability to Influence Crime B. A Theoretical Understanding and Challenges to GPCSL Desistance Good Lives Model (GLM) C. An Understanding of Practical Value Prediction Instruments Effective Prevention and Treatment Specific Responsivity The Impact of a Psychology of Criminal Conduct Conclusion and Final Comments References Index to Selected Acronyms Subject Index Name Index

About the Author

James Bonta served as Director of Corrections Research at Public Safety Canada from 1990 until 2015. He received his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the University of Ottawa in 1979. Bonta was a psychologist, and later Chief Psychologist, at the Ottawa-Carleton Detention Centre, a maximum-security remand facility for adults and young offenders. Throughout his career, Bonta has held various academic appointments and professional posts and was a member of the Editorial Advisory Boards for the Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice and Behavior. He is a Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association, a recipient of the Association's Criminal Justice Section's Career Contribution Award for 2009, the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal, 2012, the Maud Booth Correctional Services Award, 2015, and the 2015 Community Corrections Award from the International Corrections and Prisons Association. The late D.A. Andrews was a noted criminologist affiliated with Carleton University throughout his academic career. His work on the psychology of criminal conduct produced what became known as the "theory of correctional intervention," which set the standard for successful intervention practices throughout the field of corrections worldwide. He was a founding member of Carleton's Criminology and Criminal Justice Program and a Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association. He received numerous awards for his work in the criminal justice field, including those from the American Probation and Parole Association, Correctional Service Canada, the International Community Corrections Association, and the American Society of Criminology. After his retirement, he remained active in the criminal justice field as a Professor Emeritus and Distinguished Research Professor.


The 6th edition is the most concise and well written edition of The Psychology of Criminal Conduct to date. The tone of the book-its enthusiasm and balance in the way issues are presented-is welcome. Besides the topics contained in past editions, the authors' discussion of research issues, social contexts, biology, punishment, and prediction and treatment integrity are excellent contributions to this important text. - Paul E. Gendreau, Professor Emeritus, the University of New Brunswick, Canada No other single book has so transformed the field of correctional intervention. For more than 20 years this volume has been essential reading for everyone: from students of criminal psychology to correctional professionals, including prison officers, probation officers, case managers, and experienced psychologists. --Devon Polaschek, PhD DipClinPsyc, Professor, Criminal Psychology, School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Now in its Sixth Edition, The Psychology of Criminal Conduct is the most important book ever written in criminology. A scientific tour de force, it outlines the evidence-based RNR paradigm for understanding why people break the law and how to affect their rehabilitation. This paradigm has been used across and beyond North America to save countless offenders from a life in crime and thus countless citizens from victimization. To be literate in criminology and in correctional treatment, all scholars, students, and practitioners should read this book-and then, as I do, keep it close by and consult it often. - Francis T. Cullen, Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus, University of Cincinnati, College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, USA It is a real pleasure to welcome a new and fully updated edition of the leading textbook on psychologically informed approaches to understanding and reducing criminal behaviour. For over twenty years its successive editions have explained the theory and evidence behind the Risk-Need-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, which has influenced policy and practice in many countries throughout the world and continues to be the most productive source of evidence-based methods. Its influence and importance can hardly be overstated. This latest edition will be an invaluable resource not only for students of criminology and criminal justice but also for practitioners in probation and prisons, and for the managers and leaders of correctional services who have a responsibility, both to the general public and to offenders themselves, to promote and use the most effective practices. Perhaps even some politicians might take a look at this book - they would certainly benefit. - Peter Raynor, Research Professor in Criminology and Criminal Justice, Swansea University, Wales, UK This book should be essential reading for criminologists and psychologists and anyone who is interested in the assessment, prevention, and treatment of offending. Its reviews of key biological, family, school, neighborhood, and other predictors of crime, and the practical application of this knowledge in the Risk-Need-Responsivity model of effective correctional treatment, are very well-researched, extremely informative, and highly readable. - David P. Farrington, Emeritus Professor of Psychological Criminology, Cambridge University, UK When I read the first edition of The Psychology of Criminal Conduct in 1994 I thought it was the best book on its topic. The book provides a comprehensive, interdisciplinary overview on up-to-date research and theory on the origins, prediction, prevention and treatment of offending behavior. The book shows how to explain, predict and treat sexual, violent, acquisitive and other offending and puts the findings in a convincing theoretical and practice-oriented framework. It is essential reading not only for students in the fields of criminology, psychology and law, forensic psychology and psychiatry, sociology, social work and other crime-related disciplines, but also for researchers, practitioners and policy makers in these areas. -Friedrich Loesel, Professor and director emeritus of the Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University (UK) and Institute of Psychology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany Words like 'classic' and 'seminal' are all too frequently used to describe scholarly work. The fact is that The Psychology of Criminal Conduct by Bonta and Andrews is a seminal work that has become a classic since it was first published 22 years ago. The sixth edition continues the tradition by including an abundance of up-to-date research studies that address current issues. Bonta has not rested on his laurels but has produced a current work that will continue to set the standard in the field of forensic and correctional psychology. -James R. P. Ogloff, Director, Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Swinburne University and Forensicare, Melbourne, Australia

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