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Public Policy
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Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables Preface Acknowledgments About the Authors SECTION I: DEFINING U.S. PUBLIC POLICYMAKING CHAPTER ONE: The Foundation Learning Objectives Opening Vignette: Public Policy and Our Everyday Lives Starting with a Definition Power and Politics A Federal System Categories of Public Policy The Process A Motley Crew: Institutional and Noninstitutional Actors The Three Branches of Government The Implementers The Media, Interest Groups, and Us Shaping Policy What about Us? Policy Analysis Policy Evaluation Why Studying Public Policy Matters Plan of the Book Concluding Thoughts Glossary Terms Discussion Questions Suggested Resources Notes CHAPTER TWO: The Policy Process and Policy Theories Learning Objectives Opening Vignette: Policy Rhetoric and Reality What Really Is Policy? Understanding the Context of Public Policy The Political Environment The Economic Environment The Social and Cultural Environment The Administrative Environment The Quest for Public Policy Theory The Stages Heuristic Model of Public Policymaking Sugary Drinks Stage 1: Problem Identification and Definition Stage 2: Agenda Setting Stage 3: Policy Formulation Stage 4: Policy Legitimation Stage 5: Policy Implementation Stage 6: Policy Evaluation Assessing the Stages Model Alternative Policy Process Models Multiple Streams Framework Pros and Cons of the MSF Punctuated Equilibrium Actors in the Policy Process Concluding Thoughts Glossary Terms Discussion Questions Suggested Resources SECTION II: THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC POLICY CHAPTER THREE: Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations Learning Objectives Opening Vignette: Up in Smoke: Federal and State Marijuana Policies Collide Telling Stories with Data: Using Gallup Polling Data to Detect Trends Overview of Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations National Policymaking Constrained under the Articles of Confederation Constitutional Foundation of Federalism Intergovernmental Relations Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations Evolve Dual Federalism Cooperative Federalism Creative Federalism Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations Today Underfunded and Unfunded Mandates Building Picket Fences Increasing Capacity of State and Local Governments Differences in State Cultures, Politics, Economies, and Events Enduring Virtues of a Federal System Safeguards Individual Rights and Democracy Promotes Responsibility Stimulates Innovation Increases Efficiency and Effectiveness in Policy Implementation Everyday Citizen Connection Concluding Thoughts Glossary Terms Discussion Questions Suggested Resources CHAPTER FOUR: Rulemaking and Regulations Learning Objectives Opening Vignette: From Peanuts on a Plane to the Future of E-Cigarettes Understanding the Context of U.S. Regulations Defining Regulatory Policy Delegation of Authority Why Delegate? Congress and Accountability The President and Accountability The Supreme Court and Accountability Understanding Regulatory Processes State Rulemaking Influence and Participation After a Rule Becomes a Law Regulating Your Local Dry Cleaner The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly The Future of Regulatory Policy Everyday Citizen Connection Concluding Thoughts Glossary Terms Discussion Questions Suggested Resources Notes SECTION III: UNDERSTANDING KEY PUBLIC POLICY ISSUES CHAPTER FIVE: Economic Policy and Public Budgeting Learning Objectives Opening Vignette: Green Eggs and Ham and the Federal Government Shutdown in 2013 Overview of Economic Policy and Public Budgeting Types of Economies and Economic Policy Definition Economic Theories Size and Scope of the U.S. Economy Public Opinion and the Economy Telling Stories with Data: Using The Bureau of Labor Statistics to Explore Regional Economic Data Monetary and Fiscal Policy The Federal Budget Budget Process Government Revenues and Expenditures Revenues Expenditures Debt and Deficit History and Development of Economic Policy Founding Period Growth of Government Spending Great Recession and Government Response Major Economic Policy and Budgeting Statutes Major Actors in Economic Policy Congress President Government Agencies Issues and Challenges Political Polarization Debts and Deficits Global Markets and Free Trade Everyday Citizen Connection Concluding Thoughts Policy Choices: The Federal Tax System Policy Choices: Federal Tax Policy Glossary Terms Discussion Questions Suggested Resources CHAPTER SIX: Crime and Public Policy Learning Objectives Opening Vignette: Guns on Campus: Safety or Risk? Overview of Crime in America Types of Crime The U.S. Crime Rate Explaining Decreases in the U.S. Crime Rate Public Perceptions about Crime The U.S. Incarceration Rate History and Development Federalizing Crime Public Attitudes about the Incidence of Crime Media and Crime Actors in Criminal Justice Policy Federal Law Enforcement Agencies State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies Federal and State Courts Crime Victims Probation Officers and Parole Officers Major U.S. Criminal Justice and Crime Policy Statutes Capital Punishment Issues and Challenges Deterrence and Recidivism Telling Stories with Data: The Death Penalty Crime and Race Juvenile Crime Mass Shootings Everyday Citizen Connection Policy Choices: Gun Control Concluding Thoughts Glossary Terms Discussion Questions Suggested Resources CHAPTER SEVEN: Education Policy Learning Objectives Opening Vignette: Behind the Curtain of a Public Education Overview of U.S. Education Policy Understanding the Structure of a U.S. Education Status and Scope Telling Stories with Data: Using Maps to Explore Education Funding History and Development of the U.S. Education System Colonialism and Mann Challenges and Change Choice and a Digital Revolution Major Education Policy Statutes Major U.S. Education Laws Major Actors in U.S. Education Policy President Congress Courts Bureaucracy State Actors and Vested Interests Governors and State Legislatures State Expertise Mayors, Superintendents, and Teachers Interest Groups What's for Lunch? Issues and Challenges Paradigm Shift Curriculum and Technology Connecting the Dots New Narrative Everyday Citizen Connection Concluding Thoughts Policy Choices: Student Evaluation Glossary Terms Discussion Questions Suggested Resources CHAPTER EIGHT: Civil Rights and Immigration Policy Learning Objectives Opening Vignette: The Desert and an Elusive Cat Overview of Civil Rights Civil Rights and Immigration Status and Scope Longitudinal Trends Public Opinion Research Immigration Sentiments Telling Stories with Data: Using Gallup Polling Data to Detect Trends History and Development of U.S. Immigration Policy National Origin Quotas Civil Rights, Amnesty, and Enforcement 9/11, Dreamers, and Deportation Major U.S. Immigration Policy Statutes Select Major U.S. Immigration Laws The Actors in Immigration Policy President Congress Courts Bureaucracy Unofficial Actors in Immigration Policy States The Immigration Posse and the ACLU Issues and Challenges Security and Crime Sanctuary Cities and Refugees Small Town USA Everyday Citizen Connection Concluding Thoughts Policy Choices: Immigration Reform Glossary Terms Discussion Questions Suggested Resources Notes CHAPTER NINE: Social Welfare and Health Care Policy Learning Objectives Opening Vignette: Living on $2 a Day Overview of Social Welfare Policy Defining Poverty Who Is Poor? Telling Stories with Data: Using Census Data Public Values and Types of Social Welfare Programs Public Support for Social Welfare Programs History and Development of U.S. Social Welfare Policy Poor Houses and "Outdoor Relief" The New Deal and Social Security Unemployment Insurance and AFDC The Great Society and Connecting Health Care to Social Welfare Welfare Reform through TANF Overview of Health Care Policy Government-Run Insurance Programs: Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP The Affordable Care Act and Beyond Key Provisions of the ACA History and Development of U.S. Health Care Policy Early Efforts to Establish Health Care Health Reform Efforts after the Great Depression The 1960s through 2017: Government Steps In ACA Repeal Attempts under President Trump Major U.S. Social Welfare and Health Care Statutes Select Major U.S. Social Welfare and Health Care Laws Major Actors in Social Welfare and Health Care Policy The President Congress Courts Federal Bureaucracies State Governments Unofficial Actors Issues and Challenges Income Inequality The High Health Cost of Being Poor Universal Health Care Coverage and Single-Payer Health Care Everyday Citizen Connection Concluding Thoughts Policy Choices: Social and Welfare Policy-Family Leave Glossary Terms Discussion Questions Suggested Resources CHAPTER TEN: Environmental and Energy Policy Learning Objectives Opening Vignette: A Web of Actors When Disaster Strikes Overview of Environmental and Energy Policy Understanding U.S. Environmental Policy Status and Scope Telling Stories with Data: Using U.S. Epa Air Quality Trends Data History and Development of Environmental Policy Birth of the Modern Environmental Movement (1960s and 1970s) Changing Course (1980s) Diffused Attention in the 1990s and Early 2000s Executive Action in the 2010s Understanding U.S. Energy Policy Status and Scope History and Development of Energy Policy Crisis in the 1970s Deregulation in the 1980s Toward a Comprehensive Energy Policy in the 1990s Energy and National Security Concerns in the 2000s Major Environmental and Energy Policy Statutes Major Actors in Environmental and Energy Policy Congress President Federal Courts Executive Agencies Interest Groups and Lobbyists Greenhouse Gases Go to Court Issues and Challenges Lack of a Coherent, Cohesive Policy Politicization Role of Science in Policy Debates Trade-offs between the Environment and the Economy The Commons Everyday Citizen Connection Concluding Thoughts Policy Choices: Nonpoint Source Pollution Policy Choices Reflection Questions Policy Choices: Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Glossary Terms Discussion Questions Suggested Resources CONCLUSION: Public Policy: A Concise Introduction Learning Objectives Opening Vignette: On the Front Lines Putting the Pieces Together A Dynamic Enterprise Why Public Policy Matters Public Problems and Solutions Finding the Facts Consensus and Public Policy Concluding Thoughts Glossary Terms Discussion Questions Suggested Resources Glossary References Index

About the Author

Sara Rinfret is an associate professor of political science at the University of Montana, Missoula, where she teaches courses at the undergraduate and graduate level on regulatory policy, environmental policy, state and local government, public policy, public administration, and American politics. She is the director of the Master of Public Administration Program and codirects the Social Science Research Laboratory. Her main area of research is environmental regulations. More specifically, she is interested in the interactions between agencies and interest groups during the stages of environmental rulemaking at the federal and state level. To date, her work has been published in Society and Natural Resources, Environmental Politics, Review of Policy Research, Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, PS: Political Science and Politics, Public Administration Quarterly, and the Oxford Handbook of U.S. Environmental Policy. She has coauthored The Lilliputians of Environmental Regulation: The Perspective of State Regulators, and U.S. Environmental Policy: A Practical Approach to Understanding Implementation (cowritten with Michelle Pautz). She is a Fulbright Specialist Program Scholar in public administration and has studied with the University of Aarhus (Denmark) in 2016. Michelle C. Pautz is an associate professor of political science and assistant provost of the Common Academic Program at the University of Dayton. Her research has appeared in Administration & Society, Administrative Theory & Praxis, Journal of Political Science Education, Journal of Environmental Studies & Sciences, Journal of Public Affairs Education, Policy Studies Journal, PS: Political Science & Politics, Public Voices, and the Review of Policy Research, among others. She is the author of Civil Servants on the Silver Screen: Hollywood's Depiction of Government and Bureaucrats; coauthor of Public Policy: A Concise Introduction, The Lilliputians of Environmental Regulation: The Perspective of State Regulators, and U.S. Environmental Policy in Action: Practice & Implementation; and coeditor of The Intersection of Food and Public Health: Current Policy Challenges and Solutions. She holds a PhD in public administration and an MPA from Virginia Tech. She earned a BA in economics, political science, and public administration from Elon University.

Reviews

"I like the progression of practical examples, public policy issues, and dynamics that position students to conceptualize both intellectually and academically. To be specific, Chapter 1 has established a foundation to enable the student to not just regurgitate facts but to invoke public policy facts to advance vibrant policy positions of their own." -- Mary D. Bruce
"A comprehensive textbook consisting of both historical and contemporary information and data about American public policy. The format and approach of the text are ideal for undergraduate students because they provide concrete examples of public policy in a way that relates to everyday life." -- Linda Trautman
"I think the features are fantastic and well placed in this textbook. I particularly like the chapter-opening vignettes, Everyday Citizen Connections, and Policy Choices feature. I think these make the text more accessible to students and generate more real student learning than a text that just presents the material in a static manner." -- Laura Fidelie

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