DR ILKKA SYVaNNE gained his doctorate in history in 2004 from Tampere University in his native Finland. His doctoral thesis was published as The Age of Hippotoxotai, Art of War in Roman Military Revival and Disaster 491-636 (Tampere UniversityPress, Tampere 2004). He was the Vice Chairman of the Finnish Society for Byzantine Studies from 2007 to 2016. In 2017 he was nominated as an Affiliated Professor of the University of Haifa. He contributed to The Encyclopaedia of the Roman Army (Wiley-Blackwell, 2015). The first volume of his Military History of Late Rome series was published in 2015 and Caracalla: A Military Biography in 2017, both by Pen & Sword Books. He lives in Kangasala, Finland.