1. Introduction; 2. Juridical foundations: society, church and law, 1150-1250; 3. Origins of jurisdiction: hierarchy and consent, 1250-1350; 4. Popular Sovereignty, federalism and fundamental law: Azo to Althusius; 5. Corporate rulership and mixed constitution; 6. Conclusion.
To understand the growth of Western constitutional thought, we need to consider ideas about the Church as well as ideas about the state.