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Religion and European Society
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Table of Contents

Notes on Contributors xi

Introduction 1
Benjamin Schewel and Erin K. Wilson

I.1 The Varieties of Secularism 3

I.2 Imagining 'Europe' 4

I.3 Chapter Summary 5

Note 11

References 11

Part I Conceptual Frameworks 13 1 Religion in European Society: The Factors to Take into Account 15
Grace Davie
and Erin K. Wilson

1.1 Cultural Heritage 16

1.2 The Historic Churches 16

1.3 From Obligation to Consumption 18

1.4 New Arrivals 21

1.5 Secular Reactions 22

1.6 The Influence of Neoliberalism 24

1.7 Is Europe an Exceptional Case? 25

1.8 'Global War on Terror' and Associated Discourse 26

1.9 Gathering the Threads 27

Notes 28

References 28

2 What's Wrong with Secularization? 31
Benjamin Schewel

2.1 The Seven Basic Claims Investigated 32

2.2 Conclusion 42

Key Points for Researchers and Policymakers 43

Notes 44

References 44

Part II Religion and the Public Sphere in Europe 49 3 Religion's Place in Ethical and Political Discourse 51
Joseph A. Camilleri

3.1 The Changing European Mosaic 52

3.2 The 'Islam' Conundrum: Challenge and Opportunity 54

3.3 Contending Discourses 56

3.4 More Promising Pathways 60

References 65

4 Culture, Conflict, and Constitutional Right: Representations of Religion in the Daily Press 69
Mia Loevheim

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 A New Visibility of Religion: Post-Secularity or Mediatization? 70

4.3 Increased Visibility of Religion: Empirical Findings 71

4.4 Framing Religion 73

4.4.1 Conflict 74

4.4.2 Culture 75

4.4.3 Constitutional Right 75

4.5 Religion, Post-Secularity, and Mediatization: Interpreting the Findings 78

4.6 Key Points and Recommendations for Researchers 79

4.7 Key Points for Policy-Makers 80

4.8 Key Points for Media Practitioners 80

Notes 80

References 81

5 Patterns of Regulation of Religion in Europe 83
Paul Rasor

5.1 European Context 83

5.2 Six Examples of Regulation 85

5.2.1 Denmark 85

5.2.1.1 Religion in Schools 86

5.2.1.2 Religious and Clothing and Symbols 86

5.2.2 Poland 86

5.2.2.1 Religion in Schools 87

5.2.2.2 Religious Clothing and Symbols 87

5.2.3 Italy 87

5.2.3.1 Religion in Schools 88

5.2.3.2 Religious Clothing and Symbols 89

5.2.4 Czech Republic 89

5.2.4.1 Religion in Schools 90

5.2.4.2 Religious Clothing and Symbols 90

5.2.5 The Netherlands 91

5.2.5.1 Religion in Schools 91

5.2.5.2 Religious Clothing and Symbols 91

5.2.6 France 92

5.2.6.1 Religion in Schools 92

5.2.6.2 Religious Clothing and Symbols 93

5.3 Conclusion 93

Questions and Suggestions for Researchers and Policymakers 94

Notes 95

References 96

6 Faith-based Organizations in Europe 99
Jeffrey Haynes

6.1 Introduction: FBOs in Europe 99

6.2 FBOs and the EU: From Marginalization to Significance 100

6.3 FBOs and Welfare Provision in Europe 104

6.4 Conclusion 106

Notes 107

References 108

7 The Religious Dimensions of Contemporary European Populism 111
Renee Wagenvoorde

7.1 The Rise of Populism in Europe 112

7.2 Populism in Public Discourse 112

7.3 Populism in Academic Literature 114

7.4 Populism, Religion, and Identity 115

7.4.1 The Role of Religion in Populist Self-conceptions 115

7.4.2 Populists' Rejection of Islam 117

7.5 Good vs Bad Populism 118

7.6 Conclusion 119

7.6.1 Recommendations for Researchers and Policymakers 120

References120

8 Gender: Religion, Secularism, and Women's Empowerment 125
Kim Knibbe
and Brenda Bartelink

8.1 Introduction 125

8.2 Understanding Religion in Modern Society: Beyond the Secularization Thesis 126

8.3 The Gendered Division Between Public and Private 128

8.4 Religion and Gender: Current Research 130

8.5 Majority-Minority Relations 132

8.6 New Research Agendas 133

8.7 Policymakers: Recommendations 134

8.7.1 Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights 134

8.7.2 Public Health Risks: HIV- and Homo-healings 135

8.8 Conclusion 137

Notes 138

References 138

Part III Global Interconnections 143 9 Religion and Peacebuilding in the European Union 145
Megan K. Shore
and Scott T. Kline

9.1 Religious Conflict Resolution: An Introduction 146

9.2 Religion, Peacebuilding, and Religious Conflict Resolution in Europe 151

9.2.1 Secularization 152

9.2.2 The European Union 153

9.3 Conclusion 154

Note 155

References 155

10 Radicalization and Religion 159
Liam Stephens
and Stijn Sieckelinck

10.1 The Meaning and Use of Radicalization as a Concept 160

10.2 Utilizing Radicalization in Practice 161

10.2.1 Ideology 162

10.2.2 Environment 163

10.2.3 Psychological Processes 164

10.3 Identity and Agency 165

Note 167

References 167

11 Universal Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Reality Check Through the Lens of the EU Guidelines 171
Michael Wiener

11.1 Regional Challenges to the Universal Freedom of Religion or Belief 172

11.1.1 Violence 173

11.1.2 Freedom of Expression 173

11.1.3 Promotion of Respect for Diversity and Tolerance 174

11.1.4 Discrimination 175

11.1.5 Changing or Leaving One's Religion or Belief 176

11.1.6 Manifestation of Religion or Belief 176

11.2 External-Internal Consistency: A Reality Check Concerning EU Member States 177

11.2.1 Violence 177

11.2.2 Freedom of Expression 178

11.2.3 Promotion of Respect for Diversity and Tolerance 178

11.2.4 Discrimination 179

11.2.5 Changing or Leaving One's Religion or Belief 180

11.2.6 Manifestation of Religion or Belief 180

11.3 Concluding Remarks 180

Note 181

References 182

12 Between Solidarity and Exclusion: Religious Dimensions of Immigration and Asylum in Europe 183
Kat Eghdamian

12.1 (Mis)Assumptions About Religion and Immigration 184

12.2 Security First: Religion, Immigration, and Geopolitical Hostility 186

12.3 Changing Notions of Us and Them: Immigration, Integration, and Religious Identity 187

12.4 Concluding Remarks and Key Recommendations 190

References 191

13 Southern-Led Faith-based Responses to Refugees: Insights for the Global North 195
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh
and Julia Pacitto

13.1 Introduction 195

13.2 Localizing - and 'Faithing' - Debates on Southern-led Responses to Displacement 196

13.3 Hegemonic Humanitarianism Defined and Critiqued 199

13.4 Writing the 'Other' into Humanitarian Discourse 201

13.5 Southern State and Civil Society Responses to Syrian Refugees' Displacement 202

13.6 Humanitarian Refugees: Views from the Thai-Myanmar Border Camp 203

13.7 Conclusions 205

13.7.1 Recommendations for Researchers 207

13.7.2 Recommendations for Policymakers 207

Notes 207

References 210

Index 215

About the Author

Benjamin Schewel, PhD, is Lecturer at the Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies, University of Groningenand Associate Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture, University of Virginia, USA. He is author of Seven Ways of Looking at Religion and co-editor of Religion and Public Discourse in an Age of Transition: Reflections on Baha'i Practice and Thought Erin K. Wilson, PhD, is Associate Professor of Politics and Religion at the Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies, University of Groningen. She is the author of After Secularism: Rethinking Religion in Global Politics, co-author of Justice Globalism: Ideology, Crisis, Policy and co-editor of The Refugee Crisis and Religion: Secularism, Security and Hospitality in Question.

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