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Requirements Engineering
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Table of Contents

Foreword xvii Preface xxi Part I Fundamentals of Requirements Engineering 1 1 Setting the Scene 3 1.1 What is requirements engineering? 3 1.1.1 The problem world and the machine solution 4 1.1.2 Introducing our running case studies 6 1.1.3 The WHY, WHAT and WHO dimensions of requirements engineering 12 1.1.4 Types of statements involved in requirements engineering 17 1.1.5 Categories of requirements 23 1.1.6 The requirements lifecycle: Processes, actors and products 30 1.1.7 Target qualities and defects to avoid 35 1.1.8 Types of software projects 40 1.1.9 Requirements in the software lifecycle 42 1.1.10 The relationship of requirements engineering to other disciplines 45 1.2 Why engineer requirements? 47 1.2.1 Facts, data and citations about the requirements problem 47 1.2.2 The role and stakes of requirements engineering 51 1.3 Obstacles to good requirements engineering practice 52 1.4 Agile development processes and requirements engineering 53 Summary 55 Notes and Further Reading 56 Exercises 58 2 Domain Understanding and Requirements Elicitation 61 2.1 Identifying stakeholders and interacting with them 62 2.2 Artefact-driven elicitation techniques 64 2.2.1 Background study 64 2.2.2 Data collection 65 2.2.3 Questionnaires 65 2.2.4 Repertory grids and card sorts for concept-driven acquisition 66 2.2.5 Storyboards and scenarios for problem world exploration 67 2.2.6 Mock-ups and prototypes for early feedback 70 2.2.7 Knowledge reuse 72 2.3 Stakeholder-driven elicitation techniques 76 2.3.1 Interviews 77 2.3.2 Observation and ethnographic studies 79 2.3.3 Group sessions 80 2.4 Conclusion 81 Summary 82 Notes and Further Reading 84 Exercises 85 3 Requirements Evaluation 87 3.1 Inconsistency management 88 3.1.1 Types of inconsistency 88 3.1.2 Handling inconsistencies 89 3.1.3 Managing conflicts: A systematic process 90 3.2 Risk analysis 93 3.2.1 Types of risk 94 3.2.2 Risk management 95 3.2.3 Risk documentation 101 3.2.4 Integrating risk management in the requirements lifecycle 102 3.3 Evaluating alternative options for decision making 105 3.4 Requirements prioritization 108 3.5 Conclusion 112 Summary 113 Notes and Further Reading 114 Exercises 116 4 Requirements Specification and Documentation 119 4.1 Free documentation in unrestricted natural language 120 4.2 Disciplined documentation in structured natural language 121 4.2.1 Local rules on writing statements 121 4.2.2 Global rules on organizing the requirements document 124 4.3 Use of diagrammatic notations 127 4.3.1 System scope: context, problem and frame diagrams 127 4.3.2 Conceptual structures: entity-relationship diagrams 130 4.3.3 Activities and data: SADT diagrams 133 4.3.4 Information flows: dataflow diagrams 134 4.3.5 System operations: use case diagrams 136 4.3.6 Interaction scenarios: event trace diagrams 136 4.3.7 System behaviours: state machine diagrams 138 4.3.8 Stimuli and responses: R-net diagrams 142 4.3.9 Integrating multiple system views and multiview specification in UML 142 4.3.10 Diagrammatic notations: Strengths and limitations 144 4.4 Formal specification 145 4.4.1 Logic as a basis for formalizing statements 146 4.4.2 History-based specification 151 4.4.3 State-based specification 155 4.4.4 Event-based specification 163 4.4.5 Algebraic specification 167 4.4.6 Other specification paradigms 172 4.4.7 Formal specification: strengths and limitations 173 4.5 Conclusion 174 Summary 176 Notes and Further Reading 179 Exercises 183 5 Requirements Quality Assurance 187 5.1 Requirements inspections and reviews 188 5.1.1 The requirements inspection process 188 5.1.2 Inspection guidelines 190 5.1.3 Requirements inspection checklists 191 5.1.4 Conclusion 195 5.2 Queries on a requirements database 196 5.3 Requirements validation by specification animation 198 5.3.1 Extracting an executable model from the specification 199 5.3.2 Simulating the model 199 5.3.3 Visualizing the simulation 200 5.3.4 Conclusion 200 5.4 Requirements verification through formal checks 202 5.4.1 Language checks 202 5.4.2 Dedicated consistency and completeness checks 203 5.4.3 Model checking 205 5.4.4 Theorem proving 208 5.5 Conclusion 211 Summary 213 Notes and Further Reading 214 Exercises 217 6 Requirements Evolution 219 6.1 The time-space dimensions of evolution: Revisions and variants 220 6.2 Change anticipation 223 6.3 Traceability management for evolution support 225 6.3.1 Traceability links 226 6.3.2 The traceability management process, its benefits and cost 233 6.3.3 Traceability management techniques 237 6.3.4 Determining an adequate cost-benefit trade-off for traceability management 244 6.4 Change control 246 6.4.1 Change initiation 247 6.4.2 Change evaluation and prioritization 248 6.4.3 Change consolidation 249 6.5 Runtime monitoring of requirements and assumptions for dynamic change 249 6.6 Conclusion 251 Summary 252 Notes and Further Reading 254 Exercises 256 7 Goal Orientation in Requirements Engineering 259 7.1 What are goals? 260 7.2 The granularity of goals and their relationship to requirements and assumptions 261 7.3 Goal types and categories 265 7.3.1 Types of goal: behavioural goals vs soft goals 265 7.3.2 Goal categories: Functional vs non-functional goals 269 7.4 The central role of goals in the requirements engineering process 272 7.5 Where are goals coming from? 275 7.6 The relationship of goals to other requirements-related products and processes 276 7.6.1 Goals and scenarios 276 7.6.2 Intentional and operational specifications 277 7.6.3 Goals and use cases 277 7.6.4 Goals and model-checked properties 277 7.6.5 Goal orientation and agent orientation 278 7.6.6 Goal orientation and object orientation 278 7.6.7 Goal orientation and top-down analysis 279 Summary 279 Notes and Further Reading 280 Exercises 283 Part II Building System Models for Requirements Engineering 287 8 Modelling System Objectives with Goal Diagrams 293 8.1 Goal features as model annotations 294 8.2 Goal refinement 297 8.3 Representing conflicts among goals 301 8.4 Connecting the goal model with other system views 302 8.5 Modelling alternative options 303 8.5.1 Alternative goal refinements 304 8.5.2 Alternative responsibility assignments 305 8.6 Goal diagrams as AND/OR graphs 307 8.7 Documenting goal refinements and assignments with annotations 308 8.8 Building goal models: Heuristic rules and reusable patterns 309 8.8.1 Eliciting preliminary goals 309 8.8.2 Identifying goals along refinement branches 311 8.8.3 Delimiting the scope of the goal model 316 8.8.4 Avoiding common pitfalls 317 8.8.5 Reusing refinement patterns 319 8.8.6 Reusing refinement trees associated with goal categories 326 Summary 328 Notes and Further Reading 329 Exercises 331 9 Anticipating What Could Go Wrong: Risk Analysis on Goal Models 335 9.1 Goal obstruction by obstacles 336 9.1.1 What are obstacles? 336 9.1.2 Completeness of a set of obstacles 337 9.1.3 Obstacle categories 338 9.2 Modelling obstacles 339 9.2.1 Obstacle diagrams 339 9.2.2 Conditions on obstacle refinement 341 9.2.3 Bottom-up propagation of obstructions in goal AND-refinements 342 9.2.4 Annotating obstacle diagrams 343 9.3 Obstacle analysis for a more robust goal model 344 9.3.1 Identifying obstacles 344 9.3.2 Evaluating obstacles 349 9.3.3 Resolving obstacles in a modified goal model 349 Summary 353 Notes and Further Reading 355 Exercises 356 10 Modelling Conceptual Objects with Class Diagrams 359 10.1 Representing domain concepts by conceptual objects 360 10.1.1 What are conceptual objects? 360 10.1.2 Object instantiation: classes and current instances 361 10.1.3 Types of conceptual object 362 10.1.4 Object models as UML class diagrams 363 10.1.5 Object features as model annotations 364 10.2 Entities 366 10.3 Associations 366 10.4 Attributes 371 10.5 Built-in associations for structuring object models 373 10.5.1 Object specialization 373 10.5.2 Object aggregation 376 10.6 More on class diagrams 377 10.6.1 Derived attributes and associations 377 10.6.2 OR-associations 378 10.6.3 Ordered associations 379 10.6.4 Associations of associations 379 10.7 Heuristic rules for building object models 380 10.7.1 Deriving pertinent and complete class diagrams from goal diagrams 380 10.7.2 Object or attribute? 384 10.7.3 Entity, association, agent or event? 384 10.7.4 Attribute of a linked object or of the linking association? 385 10.7.5 Aggregation or association? 386 10.7.6 Specializing and generalizing concepts 386 10.7.7 Avoiding common pitfalls 387 Summary 389 Notes and Further Reading 391 Exercises 392 11 Modelling System Agents and Responsibilities 395 11.1 What are agents? 396 11.2 Characterizing system agents 397 11.2.1 Basic features 397 11.2.2 Agent capabilities 397 11.2.3 Agent responsibilities and goal realizability 399 11.2.4 Agents as operation performers 401 11.2.5 Agent wishes and beliefs 402 11.2.6 Agent dependencies 403 11.3 Representing agent models 405 11.3.1 Agent diagrams and instance declarations 405 11.3.2 Context diagrams 406 11.3.3 Dependency diagrams 407 11.4 Refinement of abstract agents 408 11.5 Building agent models 411 11.5.1 Heuristics for building agent diagrams from goal models 411 11.5.2 Generating context diagrams from goal models 413 Summary 415 Notes and Further Reading 417 Exercises 418 12 Modelling System Operations 421 12.1 What are operations? 422 12.2 Characterizing system operations 425 12.2.1 Basic features 425 12.2.2 Operation signature 425 12.2.3 Domain pre- and post-conditions 426 12.2.4 Operation performer 427 12.3 Goal operationalization 427 12.3.1 Required pre-, post- and trigger conditions for goal satisfaction 427 12.3.2 Agent commitments 430 12.3.3 Goal operationalization and satisfaction arguments 432 12.4 Goals, agents, objects and operations: The semantic picture 434 12.5 Representing operation models 435 12.5.1 Operationalization diagrams 435 12.5.2 UML use case diagrams 435 12.6 Building operation models 437 12.6.1 Heuristics for building operationalization diagrams 437 12.6.2 Generating use case diagrams from operationalization diagrams 442 Summary 442 Notes and Further Reading 444 Exercises 445 13 Modelling System Behaviours 449 13.1 Modelling instance behaviours 450 13.1.1 Scenarios as UML sequence diagrams 450 13.1.2 Scenario refinement: Episodes and agent decomposition 452 13.2 Modelling class behaviours 454 13.2.1 State machines as UML state diagrams 455 13.2.2 State machine refinement: Sequential and concurrent sub-states 459 13.3 Building behaviour models 463 13.3.1 Elaborating relevant scenarios for good coverage 465 13.3.2 Decorating scenarios with state conditions 467 13.3.3 From scenarios to state machines 469 13.3.4 From scenarios to goals 473 13.3.5 From operationalized goals to state machines 475 Summary 477 Notes and Further Reading 480 Exercises 481 14 Integrating Multiple System Views 485 14.1 A meta-model for view integration 485 14.1.1 Overall structure of the meta-model 487 14.1.2 The goal meta-model 488 14.1.3 The object meta-model 489 14.1.4 The agent meta-model 490 14.1.5 The operation meta-model 491 14.1.6 The behaviour meta-model 492 14.2 Inter-view consistency rules 493 14.3 Grouping related view fragments into packages 496 Summary 498 Notes and Further Reading 498 Exercises 499 15 A Goal-Oriented Model-Building Method in Action 501 15.1 Modelling the system-as-is 503 15.1.1 Step 1: Build a preliminary goal model illustrated by scenarios 503 15.1.2 Step 2: Derive a preliminary object model 506 15.2 Modelling the system-to-be 507 15.2.1 Step 3: Update the goal model with new goals illustrated by scenarios 507 15.2.2 Step 4: Derive the updated object model 510 15.2.3 Step 5: Analyse obstacles, threats and conflicts 512 15.2.4 Step 6: Analyse responsibilities and build the agent model 515 15.2.5 Step 7: Make choices among alternative options 517 15.2.6 Step 8: Operationalize goals in the operation model 518 15.2.7 Step 9: Build and analyse the behaviour model 521 15.3 Handling model variants for product lines 524 Summary 528 Notes and Further Reading 529 Exercises 529 Part III Reasoning About System Models 535 16 Semi-Formal Reasoning for Model Analysis and Exploitation 537 16.1 Query-based analysis of the model database 538 16.1.1 Checking the structural consistency and completeness of the model 538 16.1.2 Generation of other views for dedicated analyses 540 16.1.3 Traceability management 540 16.1.4 Analogical model reuse 541 16.2 Semi-formal analysis of goal-oriented models 544 16.2.1 Conflict analysis 544 16.2.2 Heuristic identification of obstacles 549 16.2.3 Threat analysis: From goal models to anti-goal models 551 16.3 Reasoning about alternative options 557 16.3.1 Qualitative reasoning about alternatives 557 16.3.2 Quantitative reasoning about alternatives 560 16.4 Model-driven generation of the requirements document 562 16.5 Beyond RE: From goal-oriented requirements to software architecture 566 16.5.1 Deriving a software data architecture from the object model 567 16.5.2 Deriving an abstract dataflow architecture from the agent and operation models 568 16.5.3 Selecting an architectural style from architectural requirements 570 16.5.4 Architectural refinement from quality requirements 571 Summary 574 Notes and Further Reading 576 Exercises 578 17 Formal Specification of System Models 583 17.1 A real-time temporal logic for specifying model annotations 584 17.1.1 State assertions 584 17.1.2 Temporal assertions 585 17.1.3 Real-time temporal constructs 586 17.2 Specifying goals in the goal model 588 17.3 Specifying descriptive properties in the object model 592 17.4 Specifying operationalizations in the operation model 594 17.5 Back to the system's semantic picture 596 Summary 598 Notes and Further Reading 599 Exercises 599 18 Formal Reasoning for Specification Construction and Analysis 603 18.1 Checking goal refinements 604 18.1.1 Using a theorem prover 604 18.1.2 Formal refinement patterns 604 18.1.3 Using bounded SAT solvers 608 18.2 Deriving goal operationalizations 609 18.2.1 Using bounded SAT solvers 610 18.2.2 Formal operationalization patterns 610 18.3 Generating obstacles for risk analysis 613 18.3.1 Regressing obstructions through domain properties 614 18.3.2 Using formal obstruction patterns 617 18.4 Generating anti-goals for security analysis 618 18.4.1 Specifying security goals 618 18.4.2 Identifying security goals and initial anti-goals 620 18.4.3 Refining anti-goals 621 18.5 Formal conflict analysis 622 18.5.1 Deriving boundary conditions for conflict 623 18.5.2 Formal resolution of divergences 625 18.6 Synthesizing behaviour models for animation and model checking 627 18.6.1 Goal-driven model synthesis 628 18.6.2 Scenario-driven model synthesis 628 Summary 635 Notes and Further Reading 636 Exercises 637 Bibliography 641 Index 669

About the Author

Axel van Lamsweerde is Professor in the Department of Computing Science at the Universite catholique de Louvain (UCL), Belgium. He recently received the ACM SIGSOFT Outstanding Research Award for "deep and lasting contributions to the theory and practice of requirements engineering".

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