1 The Science of Words and the Science of NumbersIntroductionEvidence and evidence-based practiceResearch designs: which one?Ontology and epistemologyQualitative and quantitative approaches: a comparisonMixed methodsResearch rigour: trustworthiness and reliability/validitySampling issues2 Getting started: Designing and planning a research projectIntroductionDesigning researchThe research processResearch problems and research questionsLiterature review3 What is Ethical Research?IntroductionConverging principles in medical, health and social care research?Understanding and applying the principles of ethical researchAutonomy4 The In-depth Interviewing Method in HealthIntroductionWhat is an in-depth interview?Framework options for the in-depth interviewQuestions and in-depth interviewsTypes of questionsDoing an in-depth interview: the sequencePractical issues in doing an interview5 Focus Groups in Health ResearchIntroductionWhy choose focus groups as a method of enquiry?Planning the focus groupsConducting the focus groupsDeveloping proficiency in conducting focus groups6 Narrative Enquiry and Health ResearchIntroductionWhat is narrative enquiry?Narrative enquiry method7 Ethnography as Health ResearchIntroductionA method with a long pedigreeEthnography in health settingsDesigning an ethnographic study8 Grounded Theory in Health ResearchIntroductionThe Historical Development of Grounded TheorySymbolic InteractionismCommon Principles of the Grounded Theory ApproachTheoretical SensitivityTheoretical SamplingConstant Comparative AnalysisMemo WritingAnalytical Coding Procedures in Grounded TheoryTheoretical SaturationData Collection in Grounded Theory ResearchObjectivist Versus Constructivist Grounded Theory9 Phenomenology and Rehabilitation ResearchIntroductionPhenomenologyDesigning and conducting phenomenological research in rehabilitation practiceData collection: conducting qualitative interviewsThe role of the researcher in phenomenological researchThe data analysis processStrategies of rigourContribution to evidence-based practice10 Clinical Data-mining as Practice-based EvidenceIntroductionData-mining: definitionContext for its useComparison with other research methodsClinical data-mining: its advantages and drawbacksClinical data-mining: the processClinical data-mining: a case study11 Measure Twice, Cut Once: Reliability and Validity of Clinical Measurement ToolsIntroductionHow do we measure?How are assessment tools developed?Psychometric (measurement) propertiesCriteria for selecting tests and measures in research and practiceCriteria for evaluating studies that examine the measurement properties of a tool12 Single-subject Experimental Designs in Health ResearchIntroductionAre RCTs and group designs always the designs of choice?What are single-subject experimental designs?When did SSEDs develop? Are they a popular design? Are they considered powerful?Types of SSEDsAnalysis of SSED data13 Surveys and Questionnaires in Health ResearchIntroductionWhy do we use surveys and questionnaires?What are the main survey designs?How is measurement theory applied to survey research?How are surveys designed?Survey formatHow are survey questions constructed?How are surveys administered?14 How Do We Know What We Know? Epidemiology in Health ResearchIntroductionThe who, the where and the whenObservational studies: descriptive versus analytical epidemiologyPopulation health data15 Clinical Trials: The Good, the Bad and the UglyIntroductionGood trials versus bad trialsRandomised controlled trialsIssues that affect the internal validity of a randomised trialIssues that affect the external validity of a randomised trialReporting RCTsAssessing the quality of clinical trials16 Evidence-based Health CareIntroductionDefining `evidence'Evidence-based practiceMisconceptions of EBPAppraising clinical guidelinesImplementing EBP: issues, strategies and using audit for implementation17 Evidence-based Practice in Therapeutic Health CareIntroductionEvidence hierarchies and evidence qualityCurrent practiceTherapy case studyDiagnosis case study18 Metasynthesis in Health Care ResearchThe `what' of metasynthesisThe `why' of metasynthesisThe `how' of metasynthesis19 Everything You Wanted to Know about Systematic ReviewsIntroductionA step-by-step guide to conducting a systematic review20 Integrated Methods in Health ResearchIntroductionIntegrated approachesOntological integrationEpistemological integrationSamplingDesignAnalysis, display, interpretation and synthesis of results21 The Use of Mixed Methods in Health ResearchIntroductionDifferent types of mixed methodsWhy use mixed methods?Critical appraisal of mixed methods studiesA case study: exploring reasons why women do not use breast screeningChallenges and terrors of mixing methodsIn conclusion or inconclusion?
Pranee Liamputtong is a Professor of Public Health, Dean's Unit with the School of Science and Health at Western Sydney University.