Part I: Overview of the Research Process Chapter 1. Introduction to Research in Physical Activity The Nature of Research Unscientific Versus Scientific Methods of Problem Solving Alternative Models of Research Types of Research Overview of the Research Process Parts of a Thesis: A Reflection on the Steps in the Research Process Summary Chapter 2. Developing the Problem and Using the Literature Identifying the Research Problem Purpose of the Literature Review Basic Literature Search Strategies Steps in the Literature Search Summary Chapter 3. Presenting the Problem Choosing the Title Writing the Introduction Stating the Research Problem Presenting the Research Hypothesis Operationally Defining Terms Basic Assumptions, Delimitations, and Limitations Justifying the Significance of the Study Differences Between the Thesis and the Research Article Summary Chapter 4. Formulating the Method How to Present Methodological Details Why Planning the Method Is Important Two Principles for Planning Experiments Describing Participants Describing Instruments Describing Procedures Describing Design and Analysis Establishing Cause and Effect Interaction of Participants, Measurements, and Treatments Summary Chapter 5. Ethical Issues in Research and Scholarship Seven Areas of Scientific Dishonesty Ethical Issues Regarding Copyright Model for Considering Scientific Misconduct Working With Faculty Protecting Human Participants Protecting Animal Subjects Summary Part II: Statistical and Measurement Concepts in Research Chapter 6. Becoming Acquainted With Statistical Concepts Why We Need Statistics Use of Computers in Statistical Analysis Description and Inference Are Not Statistical Techniques Ways to Select a Sample Justifying Post Hoc Explanations Difficulty of Random Sampling and Assignment: How Good Does It Have to Be? Unit of Analysis Measures of Central Tendency and Variability Basic Concepts of Statistical Techniques Data for Use in the Remaining Statistical Chapters Summary Chapter 7. Statistical Issues in Research Planning and Evaluation Probability Meaningfulness (Effect Size) Power Using Information in the Context of the Study Summary Chapter 8. Relationships Among Variables What Correlational Research Investigates Understanding the Nature of Correlation What the Coefficient of Correlation Means Using Correlation for Prediction Partial Correlation Uses of Semipartial Correlation Procedures for Multiple Regression Logistic Regression Discriminant Function AnalysisMultivariate Forms of Correlation Summary Chapter 9. Differences Among Groups How Statistics Test Differences Types of t Tests Interpreting t Relationship of t and r Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance Experimentwise Error Rate Understanding Multivariate Techniques Summary Chapter 10. Nonparametric Techniques Chi Square: Testing the Observed Versus the Expected Procedures for Rank-Order Data Correlation Differences Among Groups Summary Chapter 11. Measuring Research Variables Validity Reliability Methods of Establishing Reliability Intertester Reliability (Objectivity) Standard Error of Measurement Using Standard Scores to Compare Performance Measuring Movement Measuring Written Responses Measuring Affective Behavior Scales for Measuring Affective Behavior Measuring Knowledge Item Response Theory Summary Part III: Types of Research Chapter 12. Sociohistorical Process in Sport Studies David K. Wiggins and Daniel S. Mason Development of the Discipline Theory and Sport History Relationship Between Theory and Method Research Goals and Questions Research Topics Research Design Data Analysis and Interpretation Research Findings Exemplary Studies in Sport History Summary Chapter 13. Philosophical Research in Physical Activity R. Scott Kretchmar and Tim Elcombe Identifying the Purposes of Philosophical Research Identifying the Range of Philosophical Research Locating a Research Problem Analyzing a Research Problem Summary Chapter 14. Research Synthesis (Meta-Analysis) Using Meta-Analysis to Synthesize Research Presenting Effect Size Data Summary Chapter 15. Surveys Questionnaires Electronic Surveys Delphi Method Personal Interviews Normative Surveys Summary Chapter 16. Other Descriptive Research Methods Developmental Research Case Studies Job Analysis Observational Research Unobtrusive Research Techniques Correlational Research Summary Chapter 17. Physical Activity Epidemiology Research Barbara E. Ainsworth and Charles E. Matthews Observational Versus Experimental Research What Is Epidemiology? Physical Activity Measurement Definitions Assessment of Physical Activity Epidemiological Study Designs Reading and Interpreting a Physical Activity Epidemiological Study Summary Chapter 18. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Sources of Invalidity Threats to Internal Validity Threats to External Validity Controlling Threats to Internal Validity Controlling Threats to External Validity Types of Designs Summary Chapter 19. Qualitative Research Procedures in Qualitative Research Analysis of the Data Concluding Remarks Summary Chapter 20. Mixed-Methods Research Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods Designing Mixed-Methods Research Issues in Mixed-Methods Research Examples of Mixed-Methods Research Summary Part IV: Writing the Research Report Chapter 21. Completing the Research Process Research Proposal Thesis and Dissertation Proposal Advisor and Dissertation Committee The Good Scholar Must Research and Write Scientific Writing First Things Are Sometimes Best Done Last Developing a Good Introduction Describing the Method The Proposal Process Preparing and Presenting Qualitative Research Proposals Writing Proposals for Granting Agencies Submitting Internal Proposals Completing Your Thesis or Dissertation Results and Discussion Handling Multiple Experiments in a Single Report Using Tables and Figures Summary Chapter 22. Ways of Reporting Research Basic Writing Guidelines A Brief Word About Acknowledgments Thesis and Dissertation Format: Traditional Versus Journal Helpful Hints for Successful Journal Writing Revising Research Papers Writing Abstracts Making Oral and Poster Presentations Summary
Jerry R. Thomas, EdD, is professor and dean of the College of Education at the University of North Texas. Besides writing the previous editions of this book, Thomas has authored more than 200 publications, 120 of which are refereed publications with numerous contributions in research methods. In 1999 he was named the C.H. McCloy Lecturer for his production of research throughout his career. Thomas has been editor in chief of Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport and a reviewer for most major research journals in kinesiology and numerous journals in psychology. He has also served as president of the National Academy of Kinesiology, American Kinesiology Association, AAHPERD Research Consortium, and North American Society for Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. In 1990 he was named an AAHPERD Alliance Scholar and in 2003 was named a NASPSPA Distinguished Scholar based on lifetime achievement in research. Thomas received an honorary doctorate of science from his undergraduate institution, Furman University, in the spring of 2015. Jack K. Nelson, EdD, is professor emeritus in the department of kinesiology at Louisiana State University. Nelson conducted and published research and taught research methods for 35 years. He has been an adviser on more than 50 doctoral dissertations and more than 50 master's theses. He has more than 80 publications and has served as editor of research publications. A fellow in the Research Consortium, he has been a member of AAHPERD, the American Educational Research Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine. He has also served as president of the Association for Research, Administration, Professional Councils and Societies (now AAALF) and as vice president of AAHPERD. Stephen Silverman, EdD, has taught and written about research methods for more than 30 years. He is a professor of education at Teachers College at Columbia University and has conducted research on teaching in physical education focusing on how children learn motor skill and develop attitudes. He has published more than 75 research articles in addition to many books and book chapters. Silverman is a fellow and past president of the National Academy of Kinesiology and the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) Research Consortium and a fellow of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). A former coeditor of the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education and editor in chief of the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Silverman was an AERA Physical Education scholar lecturer, a Research Consortium scholar lecturer, and Weiss lecturer and Alliance Scholar for AAHPERD.