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Rock Mechanics


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Table of Contents

1 Rock mechanics and mining engineering.- 1.1 General concepts.- 1.2 Inherent complexities in rock mechanics.- 1.3 Underground mining.- 1.4 Functional interactions in mine engineering.- 1.5 Implementation of a rock mechanics programme.- 2 Stress and infinitesimal strain.- 2.1 Problem definition.- 2.2 Force and stress.- 2.3 Stress transformation.- 2.4 Principal stresses and stress invariants.- 2.5 Differential equations of static equilibrium.- 2.6 Plane problems and biaxial stress.- 2.7 Displacement and strain.- 2.8 Principal strains, strain transformation, volumetric strain and deviator strain.- 2.9 Strain compatibility equations.- 2.10 Stress-strain relations.- 2.11 Cylindrical polar co-ordinates.- 2.12 Geomechanics convention for displacement, strain and stress.- 2.13 Graphical representation of biaxial stress.- Problems.- 3 Rock mass structure.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Major types of structural features.- 3.3 Important geomechanical properties of discontinuities.- 3.4 Collecting structural data.- 3.5 Presentation of structural data.- 3.6 The hemispherical projection.- 3.7 Rock mass classification.- Problems.- 4 Rock strength and deformability.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Concepts and definitions.- 4.3 Behaviour of isotropic rock material in uniaxial compression.- 4.4 Behaviour of isotropic rock material in multiaxial compression.- 4.5 Strength criteria for isotropic rock material.- 4.6 Strength of anisotropic rock material in triaxial compression.- 4.7 Shear behaviour of discontinuities.- 4.8 Behaviour of discontinuous rock masses.- Problems.- 5 Pre-mining state of stress.- 5.1 Specification of the pre-mining state of stress.- 5.2 Factors influencing the in-situ state of stress.- 5.3 Methods of in-situ stress determination.- 5.4 Presentation of in-situ stress measurement results.- 5.5 Results of in-situ stress measurements.- Problems.- 6 Methods of stress analysis.- 6.1 Predictive methods for mine design.- 6.2 Principles of classical stress analysis.- 6.3 Closed-form solutions for simple excavation shapes.- 6.4 Computational methods of stress analysis.- 6.5 The boundary element method.- 6.6 The finite element method.- 6.7 The distinct element method.- 6.8 Hybrid computational schemes.- 7 Excavation design in massive elastic rock.- 7.1 General design methodology.- 7.2 Zone of influence of an excavation.- 7.3 Effect of planes of weakness on elastic stress distribution.- 7.4 Excavation shape and boundary stresses.- 7.5 Delineation of zones of rock failure.- 7.6 Support and reinforcement of massive rock.- Problems.- 8 Excavation design in stratified rock.- 8.1 Design factors.- 8.2 Rock mass response to mining.- 8.3 Roof bed deformation mechanics.- 8.4 Roof design procedure for plane strain.- 8.5 Roof design for square and rectangular excavations.- 8.6 Improved design procedures.- 9 Excavation design in jointed rock.- 9.1 Design factors.- 9.2 Identification of potential failure modes.- 9.3 Symmetric triangular roof prism.- 9.4 Asymmetric triangular roof prism.- 9.5 Roof stability analysis for a tetrahedral wedge.- 9.6 Pragmatic design in jointed rock.- 10 Energy changes accompanying underground mining.- 10.1 Mechanical relevance of energy changes.- 10.2 Mining consequences of energy changes.- 10.3 Spherical cavity in a hydrostatic stress field.- 10.4 General determination of released energy.- 10.5 Thin tabular excavations.- 10.6 Cut-and-fill stoping.- 11 Rock support and reinforcement.- 11.1 Terminology.- 11.2 Support and reinforcement principles.- 11.3 Rock-support interaction analysis.- 11.4 Pre-reinforcement.- 11.5 Support and reinforcement design.- 11.6 Materials and techniques.- 12 Mining methods and method selection.- 12.1 Mining excavations.- 12.2 Rock mass response to stoping activity.- 12.3 Orebody properties influencing mining method.- 12.4 Underground mining methods.- 12.5 Mining method selection.- 13 Naturally supported mining methods.- 13.1 Components of a supported mine structure.- 13.2 Field observations of pillar performance.- 13.3 Tributary area analysis of pillar support.- 13.4 Design of a stope-and-pillar layout.- 13.5 Bearing capacity of roof and floor rocks.- 13.6 Stope-and-pillar design in irregular orebodies.- 13.7 Global stability of a supported mine structure.- 13.8 Yielding pillars.- Problems.- 14 Artificially supported mining methods.- 14.1 Techniques of artificial support.- 14.2 Backfill properties and placement.- 14.3 Cut-and-fill stoping.- 14.4 Backfill applications in open stoping.- 15 Longwall and caving mining methods.- 15.1 Classification of longwall and caving mining methods.- 15.2 Longwall mining in hard rock.- 15.3 Longwall coal mining.- 15.4 Sublevel caving.- 15.5 Block caving.- Problems.- 16 Mining-induced surface subsidence.- 16.1 Types and effects of mining-induced subsidence.- 16.2 Chimney caving.- 16.3 Sinkholes in carbonate rocks.- 16.4 Discontinuous subsidence associated with caving methods of mining.- 16.5 Continuous subsidence due to the mining of tabular orebodies.- 17 Blasting mechanics.- 17.1 Blasting processes in underground mining.- 17.2 Explosives.- 17.3 Energy transmission in rock.- 17.4 Elastic models of explosive-rock interaction.- 17.5 Phenomenology of rock breakage by explosives.- 17.6 Computational models of blasting.- 17.7 Transient ground motion.- 17.8 Perimeter blasting.- 18 Monitoring rock mass performance.- 18.1 The purposes and nature of monitoring rock mass performance.- 18.2 Monitoring systems.- 18.3 Examples of monitoring rock mass performance.- Appendix 1 Basic constructions using the hemispherical projection.- A1.1 Projection of a line.- A1.2 Projection of the great circle and pole to a plane.- A1.3 Determination of the line of intersection of two planes.- A1.4 Determination of the angle between two lines in a plane.- A1.5 Determination of dip direction and true dip.- A1.6 Rotation about an inclined axis.- Appendix 2 Stresses and displacements induced by point and infinite line loads in an infinite, isotropic, elastic continuum.- A2.1 A point load (the Kelvin equations).- A2.2 An infinite line load.- Appendix 3 Calculation sequences for rock-support interaction analysis.- A3.1 Scope.- A3.2 Required support line calculations.- A3.3 Available support line calculations.- Appendix 4 Limiting equilibrium analysis of progressive hangingwall caving.- A4.1 Derivation of equations.- A4.2 Calculation sequence.- Answers to problems.- References.

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